A beacon for Chinese higher education
When Peking University (PKU) was founded in 1898 as the first modern university established by China’s central government, its reputation as a national beacon for higher education was set up. In the 120 years since, this premier university has led academic freedom and research innovation in China by fostering young minds, generating ideas that advance human civilization and producing cutting-edge science and technologies.
In the early republic years of China, PKU was the birthplace of the ideas of modern science and democracy. Following the principles of academic freedom and integration of varying ideas, which still carry on, it has attracted many leading figures of contemporary Chinese history, including Mao Zedong, Lu Xun and Hu Shi.
PKU established itself as a multidisciplinary research university after the restructuring of national higher education in 1952. Today, a comprehensive research university featuring a diverse range of subjects, including basic and applied sciences, medicine, social sciences, humanities, management and education, PKU is internationally renowned for its excellence and is placed among the top 50 in many world university rankings.
Selected as a key university for the national plan of building world-class universities, PKU launched comprehensive reforms at its centenary, which have led to significant progresses in research, student training, social service, team building and international collaboration. In 2000, it merged with Beijing Medical University, leading to a new chapter.
PKU has improved academic planning with its reform. Underlining its traditional subject strengths, it also promotes integration of subject areas to grow interdisciplinary programmes and cutting-edge research. Examples of its efforts include the establishment of the Beijing International Center for Mathematical Research, International Center for Quantum Materials, Institute of Molecular Medicine, the Biodynamic Optical Imaging Center, and the Institute of Social Science Survey. With novel management mechanisms, these research institutes have gathered world-class research teams for PKU. Reform of the human resources system has further stimulated researcher creativity, enhanced the faculty team, and contributed to the emergence of a wave of bright scholars with international impact.
As a result, PKU has made significant results in a range of research fields, including nonlinear and ultrafast photonics, the discovery of the brightest quasar and a massive black hole, theoretical research on quantum singularity, rare Earth functional materials, total synthesis of complex natural products and high-throughput single cell genome sequencing. The development of novel drugs, viral vaccines, a high-speed, high-resolution, two-photon fluorescence microscope, and new energy materials have demonstrated PKU’s research excellence in both basic and applied research. The university has also contributed to the development of humanities and social sciences by compiling several Chinese masterpieces and social survey databases. The burgeoning cross-disciplinary research in clinical medicine, regional studies, big data analytics and artificial intelligence demonstrate PKU’s commitment to interdisciplinarity.
Serving national needs
Many of PKU’s research results are widely applied in industry and are in line with national development needs. The pressure swing adsorption technology for gas separation is used by manufacturers around the world to make high-purity oxygen and in oil refineries; advances in the atomic clock improve the accuracy of GPS; the development of carbon-based nanoelectronics has the potential to transform the microchip industry; a new tumour-imaging agent developed at PKU allows early detection of cancer; and improved intervention in pregnancies with likely birth defects promotes reproductive health nationwide.
Furthermore, PKU researchers have contributed to policy-making by providing advice to the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and offering potential solutions to international financial crises and regional conflicts. Domestically, their policy research has played a significant role in national health system reform, economic management system reform, and mid- and long-term strategic planning of economy, education, science and technology for local and central governments. The university has established strategic cooperation agreements with 24 provincial regions, with a focus on collaborative development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region.
As China’s leader in higher education, PKU also actively promotes China’s educational system reform by piloting reform policies on campus. In support of the central government’s ‘Belt and Road’ initiative, it has set programmes to bolster the higher education development in remote areas like Tibet and Xinjiang.
Improving student training
With the goal of fostering future leaders, PKU strives to provide the best learning experience for students. The university has effectively combined research with student training to increase opportunities for exploratory experiments and hands-on practice. By building interdisciplinary courses and programmes, encouraging double-degrees, and enabling selecting courses across campus, PKU seeks to improve its general education system and reinforce the subject area core curriculum, providing interdisciplinary education and enabling students’ individualized development. For graduate students, the university has improved its financial aid and scholarship system to support the construction of academic programmes. By differentiating academic and professional tracks, setting separate evaluation systems for them, it makes graduate education more targeted.
Broadening international collaboration
PKU has established a broad, multi-level network for international communication, with partnerships extending to 380-plus universities and research institutions in more than 60 countries/regions. Many of these have led to joint educational or research platforms with the world’s top academic institutions. Examples include the Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, the IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research and the Cambridge Peking University China Centre. PKU is also an active member of various international university alliances, giving China a voice in the international education arena.
With enhanced international collaboration, the work of more and more PKU researchers is recognized globally. Many have won major international awards or honorary titles, or taking important roles in international agencies, academic institutes and journals. These have significantly boosted PKU’s international profile and expanded its academic impact.
As China’s cradle for high-quality and creative talent, a major base for cutting-edge research and knowledge innovation, and an important bridge for international communication, PKU is proud of its achievements. But it is aiming higher; with a goal to join the world’s top universities. “We want to lead world-class universities,” said Lin Jianhua, PKU’s president. “We cannot just follow others, but must lead the way ourselves.” Building on its past success, PKU is walking its own path by collaboration, integration and innovate, surpassing itself continually.
Peking University’s Custom Publishing on Nature: You can find more information on Peking University: Leading academic innovation in China for 120 years.
1 August 2017 - 31 July 2018
Subject/journal group: All
The table to the right includes counts of all research outputs for Peking University (PKU) published between 1 August 2017 - 31 July 2018 which are tracked by the Nature Index.
Hover over the donut graph to view the FC output for each subject. Below, the same research outputs are grouped by subject. Click on the subject to drill-down into a list of articles organized by journal, and then by title.
Note: Articles may be assigned to more than one subject area.
Outputs by subject (FC)
|Earth & Environmental Sciences||159||39.93|
Highlight of the month
Probing the properties of cancer-fighting cells
©ROGER HARRIS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY/Getty
Probing the properties of immune cells could help predict how individual cancer patients will respond to therapy.
Immunotherapy is a promising treatment for lung cancer, but its success partly depends upon the properties of tumour-attacking immune cells, known as T-cells, in each patient.
A team led by researchers from Peking University extracted 12,346 single T cells from the tumours and surrounding tissues of 14 untreated lung cancer patients and used single-cell RNA sequencing to study subtle differences between individual cells. They identified two groups of T cells in a ‘pre-exhausted’ state — before they can no longer attack the tumour — and found that a higher ratio of pre-exhausted to exhausted T cells was linked to a higher likelihood of recovery from lung cancer.
Understanding the function and dynamics of T cells in lung cancer could lead to more personalized treatment plans.
- Nature Medicine 24, 978–985 (2018). doi: 10.1038/s41591-018-0045-3
See more research highlights from Peking University (PKU)
Top articles by Altmetric score in current window
Environmental Science and Technology
Nature Climate Change
The Fas/Fap-1/Cav-1 complex regulates IL-1RA secretion in mesenchymal stem cells to accelerate wound healing
Science Translational Medicine
1 August 2017 - 31 July 2018
International vs. domestic collaboration by FC
- 63.08% Domestic
- 36.92% International
Note: Hover over the graph to view the percentage of collaboration.
Top 10 domestic collaborators by FC (346 total)
- Peking University (PKU), China
- Domestic institution
Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), China
Tsinghua University, China
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (UCAS), China
Beijing Normal University (BNU), China
National Institute of Biological Sciences, Beijing (NIBS), China
Southern University of Science and Technology (SUSTech), China
University of Science and Technology of China (USTC), China
Zhejiang University (ZJU), China
Tianjin University (TJU), China
Nankai University (NKU), China
Top 10 international collaborators by FC (1116 total)
- Peking University (PKU), China
- Foreign institution
Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore
French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), France
Max Planck Society, Germany
University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley), United States of America (USA)
University of California, San Diego (UC San Diego), United States of America (USA)
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), United States of America (USA)
Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres, Germany
University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), United States of America (USA)
National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), Italy
Harvard University, United States of America (USA)
Note: Collaboration is determined by the fractional count (FC), which is listed in parentheses.
Affiliated joint institutions and consortia
- Australia-China Research Centre for Crop Improvement (ACRCCI), Australia
- BESIII Collaboration, China
- Beijing Institute of Big Data Research (BIBDR), China
- Beijing Peking University WBL Biotech Co., Ltd. (WPU), China
- Beijing Proteome Research Center (BPRC), China
- Beijing-Hong Kong-Singapore Joint Center for Nonlinear and Complex Systems (BHS), China
- Belle Collaboration, Japan
- CUHK-PKU-UST Joint Research Centre for Language and Human Complexity (JRCLHC), China
- Center for Collaboration and Innovation in Brain and Learning Sciences, China
- Collaborative Innovation Center for Regional Environmental Quality, China
- Collaborative Innovation Center of Astronautical Science and Technology, China
- Collaborative Innovation Center of Continental Tectonics, China
- Collaborative Innovation Center of Inertial Fusion Sciences and Applications (CICIFSA), China
- Collaborative Innovation Center of Modern Astronomy and Space Exploration, China
- Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter (CICQM), China
- Cooperative Innovation Center for High Performance Computing, China
- Danish-Chinese Centre for Self-Assembly and Function of Molecular Nanostructures on Surfaces, Denmark
- Haixi Collaborative Innovation Center for New Display Devices and Systems Integration, China
- Nansen-Zhu International Research Centre (NZC), China
- National Center for Protein Sciences - Beijing, China
- National Engineering Research Center for Crop Molecular Design, China
- National Transfer Accounts (NTA), United States of America (USA)
- PHENIX Collaboration, United States of America (USA)
- PKU-HKBU Joint Research Institute for Applied Mathematics (JRIAM), China
- PKU-HKUST Shenzhen-Hong Kong Institution, China
- Peking University-Tsinghua University-National Institute of Biological Sciences Joint Graduate Program (PTN), China
- Qingdao Collaborative Innovation Center of Marine Science and Technology (CIMST), China
- SUSTech-PKU Joint Institute of Plant and Food Science, China
- Shenzhen PKU-HKUST Medical Center, China
- Singapore Peking Oxford Research Enterprise (SPORE), Singapore
- Singapore-Peking University Research Centre (SPURc), Singapore
- State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control (SKJLESPC), China
- UCLA-PKU Joint Research Institute in Science and Engineering (JRI), China
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