Correlated Event-by-Event Fluctuations of Flow Harmonics in Pb-Pb Collisions at √sNN=2.76 TeV

Journal: Physical Review Letters

Published: 2016-10-28

DOI: 10.1103/physrevlett.117.182301

Affiliations: 149

Authors: 998

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Research Highlight

Single-origin soup

© James Oursler/EyeEm/Getty images

© James Oursler/EyeEm/Getty images

Simulating the collisions between charged particles, scientists have recreated the conditions at the start of the universe, providing new insights into its origins and the nature of matter, according to a study published in Physical Review Letters.

By colliding atoms in CERN’s Large Hadron Collider, scientists achieved temperatures of trillions of degrees Celsius, melting protons and neutrons to form a superhot “soup” — known as a quark-gluon plasma — containing the basic ingredients of matter that existed at the beginning of the universe.

The secrets of this soup have remained a mystery, until an international team of physicists, including researchers from the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, used supercomputer simulations to provide new insights into its structure.

The simulations confirm that the plasma behaves like a fluid, which has a swirling, whirlpool-like structure, paving the way for further research into the origins of the universe and the nature of matter.

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  1. Phys. Rev. Lett. 117,182301 (2016). doi: 10.1103/physrevlett.117.182301
Institutions Share
European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Switzerland 0.06
INFN Section in Torino, Italy 0.03
Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU), Germany 0.03
Heidelberg University (Uni Heidelberg), Germany 0.02
Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC), India 0.02
Utrecht University (UU), Netherlands 0.02
Central China Normal University (CCNU), China 0.02
SUBATECH, France 0.02
INFN Section in Padova, Italy 0.01
University of São Paulo (USP), Brazil 0.01
Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research GmbH (GSI), Germany 0.01
ExtreMe Matter Institute (EMMI), Germany 0.01
Institute for Nuclear Research (INR), RAS, Russia 0.01
University of Bergen (UIB), Norway 0.01
Yale University, United States of America (USA) 0.01
University of Oslo (UiO), Norway 0.01
National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), Mexico 0.01
University of Copenhagen (UCPH), Denmark 0.01
Wigner Research Centre for Physics (Wigner RCP), HAS, Hungary 0.01
University of Jammu, India 0.01
Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla (BUAP), Mexico 0.01
Laboratoire de Physique de Clermont (LPC), France 0.01
National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (NRCKI), Russia 0.01
Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (IIT Bombay), India 0.01
The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics (IFJ PAN), PAS, Poland 0.01
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), United States of America (USA) 0.01
University of Tsukuba, Japan 0.01
University of Münster (WWU), Germany 0.01
Wayne State University, United States of America (USA) 0.01
Russian Federal Nuclear Center - All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF), Russia 0.01
Warsaw University of Technology (WUT), Poland 0.01
Czech Technical University in Prague (CTU), Czech Republic 0.01
University of Birmingham (UB), United Kingdom (UK) 0.01
Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Germany 0.01
INFN Frascati National Laboratory (LNF), Italy 0.01
University of Houston (UH), United States of America (USA) 0.01
INFN Section in Bologna, Italy 0.01
INFN Section in Bari, Italy 0.01
Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI), NRCKI, Russia 0.01
Institute of Space Science (ISS), Romania 0.01
National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Russia 0.01
Nuclear Physics Institute (UJF), CAS, Czech Republic 0.01
Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien (IPHC), France 0.01
A. A. Logunov Institute for High Energy Physics (IHEP), NRCKI, Russia 0.01
University of Jyväskylä, Finland 0.01
Saint Petersburg State University (SPbU), Russia 0.01
Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN HH), Romania 0.01
Yonsei University, South Korea 0.01
The University of Tokyo (UTokyo), Japan 0.01
The University of Tennessee at Knoxville (UTK), United States of America (USA) 0.01
Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, NASU, Ukraine 0.01
Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Russia 0.01
A.I. Alikhanov Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), NRCKI, Russia 0.01
CEA Institute of Research into the Fundamental Laws of the Universe (IRFU), France 0.01
INFN Section in Trieste, Italy 0.01
Lund University (LU), Sweden 0.01
National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ), Poland 0.01
COMSATS University Islamabad (CUI), Pakistan 0.01
Indian Institute of Technology Indore (IIT Indore), India 0.01
Institute of Experimental Physics, SAS, Slovakia 0.01
NRF iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences (IThemba Labs), South Africa 0.01
INFN Section in Cagliari, Italy 0.01
Pusan National University (PNU), South Korea 0.01
Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics (SINP), India 0.01
Institute of Nuclear Physics of Lyon (IPNL), France 0.01
Comenius University in Bratislava (UK), Slovakia 0.01
Aligarh Muslim University (AMU), India 0.01
INFN Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Italy 0.01
Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie (LPSC), France 0.01
Bose Institute, India 0.01
Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT), Spain 0.01
Technical University of Košice (TUKE), Slovakia 0.01
National Institute for Subatomic Physics (Nikhef), Netherlands 0.01
TUM Cluster of Excellence - Origin and Structure of the Universe (Excellence Cluster Universe), Germany 0.01
Institute of Nuclear Physics of Orsay (IPNO), France 0.01
Helsinki Institute of Physics (HIP), Finland 0.01
Hiroshima University (HU), Japan 0.01
Goethe University Frankfurt (GU), Germany 0.01
Technical University of Munich (TUM), Germany 0.01
Panjab University (PU), India 0.01
University of Zagreb, Croatia 0.01
Autonomous University of Sinaloa (UAS), Mexico 0.01
The Ohio State University (OSU), United States of America (USA) 0.01
University of Padova (UNIPD), Italy 0
University of Bologna (UNIBO), Italy 0
National Institute of Science Education and Research (NISER), India 0
The University of Texas at Austin (UT Austin), United States of America (USA) 0
National and Kapodistrian University of Athens (UOA), Greece 0
State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Brazil 0
University of Tübingen (Uni Tübingen), Germany 0
INFN Section in Catania, Italy 0
Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute (CINVESTAV), Mexico 0
Pavol Jozef Šafárik University in Košice (UPJŠ), Slovakia 0
Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica "Michelangelo Merlin", Italy 0
Inha University, South Korea 0
Bergen University College (HiB), Norway 0
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), United States of America (USA) 0
University of Split, Croatia 0
University of Cape Town (UCT), South Africa 0
University of Liverpool, United Kingdom (UK) 0
Gauhati University, India 0
Pontifical Catholic University of Peru (PUCP), Peru 0
University of Cagliari (UNICA), Italy 0
University of Trieste (UNITS), Italy 0
Stefan Meyer Institute for Subatomic Physics (SMI), ÖAW, Austria 0
Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar, India 0
INFN Gruppo Collegato di Alessandria, Italy 0
Il Museo della Fisica e il Centro Studi e Ricerche Enrico Fermi (Centro Fermi), Italy 0
Creighton University, United States of America (USA) 0
Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnológicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), Cuba 0
Chicago State University (CSU), United States of America (USA) 0
Konkuk University, South Korea 0
A. Alikhanyan National Laboratory (AANL) / Yerevan Physics Institute (YerPhi), Armenia 0
University of Catania, Italy 0
Buskerud and Vestfold University College (HBV), Norway 0
Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information (KISTI), South Korea 0
Sejong University, South Korea 0
University of Rajasthan, India 0
KTO Karatay University, Turkey 0
Gangneung-Wonju National University (GWNU), South Korea 0
Institute of Physics (FZU), CAS, Czech Republic 0
Suranaree University of Technology (SUT), Thailand 0
INFN Section in Roma, Italy 0
STFC Daresbury Laboratory, United Kingdom (UK) 0
University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (Wits University), South Africa 0
China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), China 0
California Polytechnic State University (Cal Poly), United States of America (USA) 0
University of Applied Sciences Worms, Germany 0
University of Santiago de Compostela (USC), Spain 0
University of Bonn (Uni Bonn), Germany 0
Purdue University, United States of America (USA) 0
University of Brescia (UNIBS), Italy 0
G.I. Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP), SB RAS, Russia 0
Rudjer Boskovic Institute (RBI), Croatia 0
INFN Legnaro National Laboratory (LNL), Italy 0
Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Indonesia 0
National Institute of Nuclear Physics and Particle Physics (IN2P3), CNRS, France 0
Sapienza University of Rome, Italy 0
Nagasaki Institute of Applied Science, Japan 0