2021 tables: Institutions - physical sciences

Table criteria

The 2021 tables are based on Nature Index data from 1 January 2020 to 31 December 2020.

2020 Institution Share 2019 Share 2020
1 Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), China 532.91 575.07
2 Max Planck Society, Germany 317.92 330.43
3 French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), France 273.75 270.47
4 Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres, Germany 190.24 237.02
5 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), United States of America (USA) 245.62 223.37
6 The University of Tokyo (UTokyo), Japan 200.20 216.51
7 Stanford University, United States of America (USA) 213.90 208.11
8 Harvard University, United States of America (USA) 202.27 191.19
9 University of Science and Technology of China (USTC), China 167.83 183.49
10 University of Cambridge, United Kingdom (UK) 146.67 175.63
11 Peking University (PKU), China 151.03 166.78
12 Tsinghua University, China 184.46 164.93
13 National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), Italy 134.83 150.00
14 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (UCAS), China 130.93 143.33
15 Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETH Zurich), Switzerland 150.65 143.30
16 National University of Singapore (NUS), Singapore 125.36 138.84
17 University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley), United States of America (USA) 123.09 136.05
18 Nanjing University (NJU), China 129.22 134.51
19 California Institute of Technology (Caltech), United States of America (USA) 113.50 126.73
20 University of Oxford, United Kingdom (UK) 120.97 126.41
21 Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL), Switzerland 95.08 119.67
22 Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Russia 111.65 118.42
23 Princeton University, United States of America (USA) 112.07 116.93
24 Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU), China 83.98 116.40
25 Zhejiang University (ZJU), China 90.89 114.35
26 Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), South Korea 89.20 109.19
27 Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore 93.04 106.75
28 University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), United States of America (USA) 104.31 105.78
29 Cornell University, United States of America (USA) 96.98 105.72
30 University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB), United States of America (USA) 102.53 105.12
31 University of Michigan (U-M), United States of America (USA) 95.38 104.60
32 Imperial College London (ICL), United Kingdom (UK) 85.87 95.78
33 The University of Chicago (UChicago), United States of America (USA) 71.13 95.31
34 Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Spain 81.29 93.75
35 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC), United States of America (USA) 86.21 90.65
36 Fudan University, China 95.09 90.25
37 The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State), United States of America (USA) 73.70 89.39
38 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), United States of America (USA) 89.71 89.09
39 Northwestern University (NU), United States of America (USA) 104.38 88.17
40 The University of Texas at Austin (UT Austin), United States of America (USA) 65.36 87.38
41 University of Maryland, College Park (UMCP), United States of America (USA) 96.93 86.73
42 University of Toronto (U of T), Canada 57.12 83.73
43 Southern University of Science and Technology (SUSTech), China 44.60 83.50
44 Kyoto University, Japan 64.98 81.37
45 University of California, San Diego (UC San Diego), United States of America (USA) 74.17 81.31
46 Columbia University in the City of New York (CU), United States of America (USA) 65.03 80.38
47 Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), China 86.92 79.81
48 Seoul National University (SNU), South Korea 74.53 78.08
49 Yale University, United States of America (USA) 65.76 78.04
50 Soochow University, China 94.38 77.76
51 RIKEN, Japan 60.92 73.21
52 Weizmann Institute of Science (WIS), Israel 71.61 71.02
53 Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), United States of America (USA) 72.17 70.61
54 National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Japan 65.83 69.42
55 University of Pennsylvania (Penn), United States of America (USA) 69.27 69.24
56 Purdue University, United States of America (USA) 61.80 67.63
57 Technion-Israel Institute of Technology (IIT), Israel 51.94 65.09
58 Tohoku University, Japan 57.68 64.94
59 National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), United States of America (USA) 72.06 63.19
60 University of Washington (UW), United States of America (USA) 55.64 62.11
61 Technical University of Munich (TUM), Germany 58.57 61.19
62 Nankai University (NKU), China 47.83 61.10
63 Sun Yat-sen University (SYSU), China 64.27 60.86
64 Leibniz Association, Germany 54.74 59.85
65 Xi'an Jiaotong University (XJTU), China 60.10 58.93
66 University of Colorado Boulder (CU-Boulder), United States of America (USA) 63.08 58.55
67 Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), United States of America (USA) 69.96 58.37
68 Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), United States of America (USA) 49.21 57.94
69 University of Copenhagen (UCPH), Denmark 45.66 56.90
70 Rice University, United States of America (USA) 52.51 56.39
71 Tianjin University (TJU), China 57.77 56.04
72 Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), South Korea 53.38 55.98
73 Johns Hopkins University (JHU), United States of America (USA) 54.51 54.74
74 Beihang University (BUAA), China 54.28 54.25
75 Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT), China 44.20 54.18
76 Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), United States of America (USA) 52.05 53.94
77 Sorbonne University, France 52.96 53.93
78 Wuhan University (WHU), China 61.18 53.70
79 University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW-Madison), United States of America (USA) 49.73 53.39
80 Jilin University (JLU), China 49.39 52.37
81 UCL, United Kingdom (UK) 52.42 51.57
82 European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Switzerland 53.12 51.50
83 The French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), France 46.09 50.98
84 Xiamen University (XMU), China 33.96 50.93
85 Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), South Korea 41.72 50.70
86 King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Saudi Arabia 47.54 50.52
87 Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), South Korea 51.78 50.43
88 Dresden University of Technology (TU Dresden), Germany 43.36 50.19
89 Uppsala University (UU), Sweden 36.37 50.14
90 University of Minnesota (UMN), United States of America (USA) 46.55 49.56
91 The Ohio State University (OSU), United States of America (USA) 48.97 49.38
92 National Research Council (CNR), Italy 47.79 49.12
93 The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), China 47.06 48.97
94 Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), United States of America (USA) 51.57 48.28
95 Sichuan University (SCU), China 40.45 47.46
96 Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich (LMU), Germany 50.47 46.79
97 Durham University, United Kingdom (UK) 51.61 46.68
98 University of Southampton (Soton), United Kingdom (UK) 41.25 44.78
99 Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (BIST), Spain 41.74 44.33
100 Yonsei University, South Korea 45.01 44.32

Each year, the Nature Index publishes tables based on counts of high-quality research outputs in the previous calendar year. Users please note:

  1. The data behind the tables are based on a relatively small proportion of total research papers, they cover the natural sciences only and outputs are non-normalized (that is, they don’t reflect the size of the country or institution, or its overall research output).
  2. The Nature Index is one indicator of institutional research performance. The metrics of Count and Share used to order Nature Index listings are based on an institution’s or country’s publication output in 82 natural-science journals, selected on reputation by an independent panel of leading scientists in their fields.
  3. Nature Index recognizes that many other factors must be taken into account when considering research quality and institutional performance; Nature Index metrics alone should not be used to assess institutions or individuals.
  4. Nature Index data and methods are transparent and available under a creative commons licence at natureindex.com.

The Nature Index database undergoes regular updating, corrections, adjustment of institutional hierarchies, and removal of retracted papers and thus the live website can differ from the frozen annual tables.

*The change in adjusted Share accounts for the small annual variation in the total number of articles in Nature Index journals. Share values have been adjusted to 2020 levels to calculate the percentage change. For more information on the adjustment, please see the Adjusted metric explainer.