2021 tables: Institutions

The 2021 tables are based on Nature Index data from 1 January 2020 to 31 December 2020.

Table criteria

# Institution Share 2019 Share 2020 Count 2020 Change in Adjusted Share 2019-2020*
1 Max Planck Society, Germany 767.84 794.62 2,744 -0.2%
2 French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), France 730.01 711.66 4,523 -6.0%
3 Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres, Germany 489.43 580.16 2,506 14.3%
4 University of Oxford, United Kingdom (UK) 455.82 458.80 1,437 -2.9%
5 University of Cambridge, United Kingdom (UK) 419.32 456.45 1,439 5.0%
6 Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETH Zurich), Switzerland 403.35 377.72 1,055 -9.7%
7 Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL), Switzerland 268.84 260.31 630 -6.6%
8 Imperial College London (ICL), United Kingdom (UK) 221.28 254.49 962 10.9%
9 Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Russia 197.50 236.51 932 15.5%
10 Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Spain 207.22 217.50 1,261 1.2%
11 UCL, United Kingdom (UK) 216.73 211.46 919 -5.9%
12 Leibniz Association, Germany 200.83 199.01 942 -4.4%
13 Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich (LMU), Germany 184.11 162.96 649 -14.7%
14 Technical University of Munich (TUM), Germany 154.85 161.35 631 0.5%
15 University of Copenhagen (UCPH), Denmark 151.43 158.41 665 0.9%
16 National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), Italy 136.10 152.46 743 8.0%
17 The University of Manchester (UoM), United Kingdom (UK) 146.03 148.40 570 -2.0%
18 The University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom (UK) 150.74 143.33 657 -8.3%
19 University of Zurich (UZH), Switzerland 136.44 143.13 652 1.2%
20 University of Münster (WWU), Germany 109.32 140.77 362 24.2%
21 Heidelberg University (Uni Heidelberg), Germany 138.84 138.21 625 -4.0%
22 University of Bristol (UoB), United Kingdom (UK) 134.57 137.69 471 -1.3%
23 Utrecht University (UU), Netherlands 124.28 129.29 631 0.3%
24 University of Würzburg (JMU), Germany 115.64 125.12 364 4.3%
25 Uppsala University (UU), Sweden 93.13 116.53 489 20.6%
26 University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland 114.79 115.01 386 -3.4%
27 Catholic University of Leuven (KU Leuven), Belgium 108.96 112.78 401 -0.2%
28 University of Groningen (RUG), Netherlands 97.09 107.41 412 6.7%
29 Sorbonne University, France 111.40 104.53 1,108 -9.5%
30 National Research Council (CNR), Italy 97.25 104.47 523 3.6%
31 University of Göttingen, Germany 101.31 103.86 376 -1.1%
32 University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU), Germany 90.57 103.00 309 9.7%
33 Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (BIST), Spain 104.17 100.43 384 -7.0%
34 University of Basel (UB), Switzerland 106.46 99.54 330 -9.8%
35 Free University of Berlin (FU Berlin), Germany 102.96 99.51 588 -6.8%
36 RWTH Aachen University (RWTH Aachen), Germany 102.31 98.84 402 -6.8%
37 Czech Academy of Sciences (CAS), Czech Republic 93.57 95.22 439 -1.9%
38 Karolinska Institute (KI), Sweden 83.10 94.89 418 10.1%
39 Dresden University of Technology (TU Dresden), Germany 92.06 94.54 446 -1.0%
40 National Institute for Health and Medical Research (INSERM), France 90.59 91.82 1,184 -2.3%
41 Stockholm University, Sweden 82.46 91.35 494 6.8%
42 Aarhus University (AU), Denmark 91.37 91.17 304 -3.8%
43 Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Netherlands 80.84 90.48 267 7.9%
44 The French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), France 94.38 88.75 938 -9.3%
45 University of Tübingen (Uni Tübingen), Germany 85.04 87.61 365 -0.7%
46 Leiden University, Netherlands 82.57 86.37 360 0.9%
47 King's College London (KCL), United Kingdom (UK) 75.80 86.20 417 9.7%
48 University of Freiburg (Uni Freiburg), Germany 105.20 85.87 292 -21.3%
49 Lund University (LU), Sweden 77.27 85.66 372 6.9%
50 University of Leeds, United Kingdom (UK) 72.41 81.43 293 8.4%
51 Ghent University (UGent), Belgium 75.76 80.69 321 2.7%
52 Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Denmark 71.21 79.97 283 8.3%
53 Durham University, United Kingdom (UK) 85.03 79.94 265 -9.3%
54 University of Hamburg (UHH), Germany 91.95 79.51 436 -16.6%
55 University of Paris, France 70.77 79.22 856 7.9%
56 University of Barcelona (UB), Spain 68.37 77.31 415 9.0%
57 Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU), Germany 84.51 77.07 364 -12.1%
58 University of Amsterdam (UvA), Netherlands 88.98 76.13 584 -17.5%
59 University of Southampton (Soton), United Kingdom (UK) 75.96 76.08 332 -3.4%
60 University of Oslo (UiO), Norway 77.55 75.99 351 -5.5%
61 Radboud University Nijmegen (RU), Netherlands 74.16 75.29 497 -2.1%
62 University of Bern (UniBE), Switzerland 62.85 75.28 340 15.5%
63 Goethe University Frankfurt (GU), Germany 83.98 75.26 291 -13.6%
64 Polish Academy of Sciences (PAS), Poland 62.35 74.99 375 16.0%
65 University of Vienna, Austria 86.40 74.22 299 -17.2%
66 The University of Warwick (Warwick), United Kingdom (UK) 73.57 74.00 333 -3.0%
67 University of Glasgow, United Kingdom (UK) 86.06 73.87 412 -17.2%
68 University of Lausanne (UNIL), Switzerland 64.91 70.08 241 4.1%
69 University of Regensburg (UR), Germany 79.91 69.98 174 -15.6%
70 Autonomous University of Madrid (UAM), Spain 73.22 69.83 387 -8.0%
71 Humboldt University of Berlin (HU Berlin), Germany 59.37 68.47 569 11.2%
72 Queen Mary University of London (QMUL), United Kingdom (UK) 55.96 68.32 302 17.7%
73 University of Bonn (Uni Bonn), Germany 72.19 68.24 331 -8.8%
74 University of Cologne (UoC), Germany 71.21 65.52 262 -11.3%
75 Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e), Netherlands 68.24 65.48 158 -7.5%
76 The University of Sheffield, United Kingdom (UK) 79.55 65.23 269 -20.9%
77 Chalmers University of Technology (Chalmers), Sweden 45.50 64.72 201 37.2%
78 The University of Nottingham (UoN), United Kingdom (UK) 52.77 63.62 233 16.2%
79 Technische Universität Berlin (TU Berlin), Germany 56.42 63.47 210 8.5%
80 University of Helsinki, Finland 63.18 63.27 386 -3.4%
81 University of Exeter, United Kingdom (UK) 61.04 62.04 243 -2.0%
82 University of Liverpool, United Kingdom (UK) 62.19 61.53 363 -4.6%
83 Medical Research Council (MRC), United Kingdom (UK) 59.49 61.07 312 -1.0%
84 University of Paris-Sud (UPSud), France 69.86 60.58 665 -16.4%
85 F. Hoffmann-La Roche AG, Switzerland 47.80 60.08 145 21.2%
86 KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden 65.56 60.04 408 -11.7%
87 University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Spain 50.81 60.00 301 13.9%
88 University of Birmingham (UB), United Kingdom (UK) 63.54 59.82 340 -9.2%
89 Ruhr University Bochum (RUB), Germany 58.63 59.36 213 -2.4%
90 The Francis Crick Institute, United Kingdom (UK) 52.15 58.84 179 8.8%
91 Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Switzerland 52.25 58.31 266 7.6%
92 University of Valencia (UV), Spain 54.31 55.05 323 -2.3%
93 University of Strasbourg, France 58.89 54.14 407 -11.4%
94 European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Germany 47.13 52.85 349 8.1%
95 European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Switzerland 53.23 51.66 345 -6.4%
96 Wageningen University & Research (WUR), Netherlands 44.56 50.79 200 9.9%
97 Hungarian Academy of Sciences (HAS), Hungary 32.83 50.76 310 49.1%
98 Philipps University of Marburg (Uni Marburg), Germany 57.49 50.64 143 -15.1%
99 University of Toulouse, France 52.14 49.43 392 -8.6%
100 University of St Andrews, United Kingdom (UK) 55.87 49.22 199 -15.1%
101 VU Amsterdam, Netherlands 43.88 49.21 456 8.1%
102 The University of Dublin, Ireland 41.97 48.79 173 12.1%
103 University of Kiel (CAU), Germany 42.32 48.43 195 10.3%
104 University of Gothenburg (GU), Sweden 39.30 48.33 208 18.6%
105 Pasteur Institute, France 34.53 48.22 348 34.6%
106 Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU), Russia 43.78 48.06 338 5.8%
107 Vienna University of Technology (TU Wien), Austria 46.19 47.10 206 -1.7%
108 University of Padova (UNIPD), Italy 46.37 47.02 355 -2.2%
109 Friedrich Schiller University Jena (FSU), Germany 41.27 46.87 234 9.5%
110 University of Lyon, France 45.72 46.74 456 -1.4%
111 Aix-Marseille University (AMU), France 45.41 46.70 421 -0.8%
112 University of Konstanz, Germany 52.51 46.70 108 -14.3%
113 Cardiff University, United Kingdom (UK) 49.24 46.53 192 -8.9%
114 University of Montpellier, France 43.69 46.41 394 2.4%
115 University of Bayreuth (UBT), Germany 39.92 46.05 118 11.2%
116 Scientific Institute for Research, Hospitalization and Healthcare (IRCCS), Italy 46.65 44.58 243 -7.9%
117 Newcastle University, United Kingdom (UK) 53.67 43.91 196 -21.1%
118 Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Norway 40.77 43.23 171 2.2%
119 Leibniz University Hannover (LUH), Germany 33.59 43.17 118 23.9%
120 Charles University (CU), Czech Republic 35.26 42.87 301 17.2%
121 Catholic University of Louvain (UCLouvain), Belgium 34.84 42.63 193 18.0%
122 Italian Institute of Technology (IIT), Italy 45.42 42.60 169 -9.6%
123 Complutense University of Madrid (UCM), Spain 32.35 42.12 223 25.5%
124 University of Lisbon (ULISBOA), Portugal 41.02 41.72 240 -1.9%
125 University of Warsaw (UW), Poland 43.02 39.94 202 -10.5%
126 Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf (HHU), Germany 30.18 39.60 152 26.5%
127 National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF), Italy 30.80 39.33 158 23.1%
128 University of Duisburg-Essen (UDE), Germany 33.10 38.65 140 12.6%
129 Aalto University, Finland 39.47 38.49 232 -6.0%
130 University of Florence (UNIFI), Italy 24.94 38.16 233 47.5%
131 Grenoble Alpes University (UGA), France 46.00 38.03 532 -20.3%
132 National Research Institute for Agriculture, Food and Environment (INRAE), France 42.32 37.59 535 -14.4%
133 University of Bordeaux, France 36.94 37.52 273 -2.1%
134 University of Stuttgart, Germany 37.45 37.49 129 -3.5%
135 Jagiellonian University (UJ), Poland 27.28 37.39 167 32.2%
136 Linköping University (LiU), Sweden 39.69 36.78 113 -10.6%
137 University of Bath, United Kingdom (UK) 31.13 36.68 126 13.6%
138 University of York, United Kingdom (UK) 40.86 36.61 176 -13.6%
139 University of Santiago de Compostela (USC), Spain 36.52 36.61 180 -3.3%
140 Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Belgium 32.39 35.98 213 7.1%
141 Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), United Kingdom (UK) 31.21 35.25 452 8.9%
142 Sapienza University of Rome, Italy 50.31 35.19 331 -32.6%
143 Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria), Austria 22.70 34.76 82 47.7%
144 Ulm University, Germany 37.67 34.17 152 -12.5%
145 University of Bremen (Uni Bremen), Germany 27.59 34.16 128 19.4%
146 Austrian Academy of Sciences (ÖAW), Austria 32.35 34.12 255 1.7%
147 Leipzig University, Germany 33.22 34.10 182 -1.0%
148 NWO-I, the Institutes Organisation of NWO, Netherlands 28.84 32.71 320 9.3%
149 University of Bologna (UNIBO), Italy 33.12 32.57 307 -5.2%
150 University of Milan (UNIMI), Italy 22.02 32.49 265 42.2%
151 University of Innsbruck (LFU), Austria 37.23 32.41 147 -16.0%
152 University of Twente (UTwente), Netherlands 27.78 31.53 92 9.4%
153 Lancaster University, United Kingdom (UK) 27.69 31.12 177 8.4%
154 University of Antwerp (UA), Belgium 31.88 31.08 182 -6.0%
155 Technical University of Darmstadt (TU Darmstadt), Germany 30.30 30.64 131 -2.5%
156 TU Dortmund University, Germany 35.12 30.50 157 -16.2%
157 Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (EMPA), Switzerland 32.75 30.05 104 -11.5%
158 Institute of Research for Development (IRD), France 32.75 29.54 566 -13.0%
159 University of Sussex, United Kingdom (UK) 23.99 29.22 129 17.4%
160 University of Milano-Bicocca (UNIMIB), Italy 34.74 29.07 218 -19.3%
161 University of Bergen (UIB), Norway 33.84 28.35 246 -19.2%
162 Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (EAWAG), Switzerland 30.33 28.32 100 -10.0%
163 Wellcome Sanger Institute, United Kingdom (UK) 36.66 28.20 207 -25.8%
164 University of Naples Federico II (UNINA), Italy 26.35 28.18 276 3.1%
165 AstraZeneca plc, United Kingdom (UK) 30.09 27.90 136 -10.6%
166 Bielefeld University, Germany 20.06 27.89 66 34.1%
167 Saarland University (Saar-Uni), Germany 27.95 26.86 93 -7.4%
168 National Institute of Applied Sciences (INSA), France 27.37 26.65 265 -6.1%
169 Queen's University Belfast (QUB), United Kingdom (UK) 27.31 26.30 104 -7.1%
170 Giessen University (JLU), Germany 28.17 26.08 178 -10.7%
171 Erasmus University Rotterdam (EUR), Netherlands 22.94 26.00 162 9.3%
172 Flanders Institute for Biotechnology (VIB), Belgium 24.12 25.99 159 3.9%
173 Umeå University (UMU), Sweden 22.80 25.78 127 9.0%
174 Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (MLU), Germany 24.15 25.74 134 2.7%
175 University of Strathclyde, United Kingdom (UK) 22.48 25.61 102 9.9%
176 University of Potsdam, Germany 28.35 25.51 154 -13.2%
177 Institute of Health Carlos III (ISCIII), Spain 20.87 25.48 292 17.7%
178 Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB), Spain 26.21 25.01 259 -8.0%
179 University of Oviedo (UniOvi), Spain 20.53 24.87 164 16.8%
180 École Normale Supérieure (ENS Paris), France 28.96 24.65 329 -17.9%
181 Novartis International AG, Switzerland 39.09 24.63 97 -39.3%
182 University of Jyväskylä, Finland 19.30 24.56 188 22.7%
183 University of Oldenburg, Germany 11.71 24.55 64 102.1%
184 Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (SISSA), Italy 29.44 23.77 96 -22.1%
185 University of Pisa (UNIPI), Italy 20.21 23.73 250 13.2%
186 Vienna Biocenter (VBC), Austria 19.04 23.49 87 19.0%
187 National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (NRCKI), Russia 23.65 23.35 262 -4.8%
188 University of Turin (UNITO), Italy 21.92 23.33 251 2.6%
189 University of Leicester, United Kingdom (UK) 21.17 23.22 111 5.8%
190 University of Liège (ULg), Belgium 23.22 23.03 104 -4.4%
191 Saint Petersburg State University (SPbU), Russia 27.26 23.01 101 -18.6%
192 European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), France 24.93 22.98 138 -11.1%
193 University of Southern Denmark (SDU), Denmark 20.97 22.47 123 3.3%
194 Swansea University, United Kingdom (UK) 18.16 22.46 84 19.2%
195 Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology - State University (MIPT), Russia 15.51 22.19 196 37.9%
196 University of East Anglia (UEA), United Kingdom (UK) 24.58 22.04 109 -13.5%
197 Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology (Skoltech), Russia 13.73 22.00 97 54.5%
198 University College Dublin (UCD), Ireland 14.42 21.84 176 46.0%
199 Masaryk University (MU), Czech Republic 19.26 21.64 118 8.3%
200 University of Fribourg (UNIFR), Switzerland 31.07 21.54 95 -33.2%
201 University of Iceland, Iceland 15.84 21.50 88 30.8%
202 University of Granada (UGR), Spain 22.73 21.34 137 -9.5%
203 University of Dundee, United Kingdom (UK) 25.30 21.31 103 -18.8%
204 ITMO National Research University (ITMO University), Russia 15.51 21.10 63 31.2%
205 National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology (INGV), Italy 18.02 20.91 70 11.8%
206 Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Italy 16.23 20.87 154 24.0%
207 University of Lorraine (UL), France 16.31 20.79 126 22.9%
208 University of Ljubljana, Slovenia 20.27 20.78 134 -1.1%
209 Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies (ICREA), Spain 20.56 20.62 331 -3.3%
210 GlaxoSmithKline plc. (GSK), United Kingdom (UK) 12.46 20.43 87 58.1%
211 University of Reading, United Kingdom (UK) 29.83 20.23 95 -34.6%
212 John Innes Centre (JIC), United Kingdom (UK) 18.77 20.22 58 3.8%
213 University of Turku (UTU), Finland 20.14 20.13 98 -3.6%
214 Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Sweden 20.38 20.08 103 -5.0%
215 Polytechnic University of Milan, Italy 20.41 19.95 97 -5.8%
216 Medical University of Vienna (MUW), Austria 24.51 19.87 150 -21.8%
217 Technical University Braunschweig (TU Braunschweig), Germany 21.87 19.43 79 -14.3%
218 Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), France 15.48 19.09 218 18.9%
219 University of Aveiro (UA), Portugal 20.22 18.99 69 -9.5%
220 University of Trento (UNITN), Italy 15.45 18.84 193 17.5%
221 Fraunhofer Society, Germany 22.38 18.67 141 -19.6%
222 University of Siegen, Germany 20.83 18.66 88 -13.6%
223 Graz University of Technology (TU Graz), Austria 22.11 18.40 69 -19.8%
224 University of Salerno (UNISA), Italy 13.41 18.25 87 31.3%
225 University of Zaragoza (Unizar), Spain 15.88 17.86 115 8.5%
226 Jozef Stefan Institute (IJS), Slovenia 12.02 17.81 122 42.8%
227 Hannover Medical School (MHH), Germany 14.76 17.74 108 15.9%
228 Maastricht University (UM), Netherlands 12.27 17.55 128 37.9%
229 École Polytechnique, France 17.52 17.54 375 -3.5%
230 The Institute of Cancer Research (ICR), United Kingdom (UK) 10.37 17.33 91 61.1%
231 Free University of Brussels (VUB), Belgium 21.18 17.09 153 -22.2%
232 École Normale Supérieure de Lyon (ENS de Lyon), France 15.74 17.07 187 4.6%
233 Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW), Netherlands 17.79 17.04 125 -7.6%
234 University of Wrocław (UWr), Poland 18.48 17.03 61 -11.2%
235 University of Girona (UdG), Spain 16.73 16.66 52 -4.0%
236 Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Russia 15.36 16.35 210 2.7%
237 University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy 14.39 16.24 159 8.8%
238 University College Cork (UCC), Ireland 14.69 16.23 85 6.5%
239 University of Tartu (UT), Estonia 12.96 16.12 88 20.0%
240 University of Rennes 1, France 18.84 16.06 144 -17.8%
241 Netherlands Cancer Institute (NKI), Netherlands 20.90 15.65 101 -27.8%
242 University of Salamanca (USAL), Spain 10.27 15.62 48 46.6%
243 Heriot-Watt University, United Kingdom (UK) 26.11 15.31 77 -43.5%
244 Rovira i Virgili University (URV), Spain 12.62 15.25 60 16.6%
245 ESPCI ParisTech, France 13.95 15.06 198 4.1%
246 Met Office, United Kingdom (UK) 9.82 15.06 64 47.8%
247 Rudjer Boskovic Institute (RBI), Croatia 12.01 15.04 123 20.7%
248 University of Rostock, Germany 16.19 15.01 82 -10.7%
249 University of Graz (Uni Graz), Austria 14.63 14.95 53 -1.4%
250 Novosibirsk State University (NSU), Russia 14.48 14.92 188 -0.6%
251 University of Lille Nord de France, France 16.58 14.88 133 -13.4%
252 Pompeu Fabra University (UPF), Spain 12.15 14.80 138 17.5%
253 Polytechnic University of Valencia (UPV), Spain 14.32 14.77 65 -0.5%
254 University of Pavia (UNIPV), Italy 15.27 14.53 205 -8.3%
255 National and Kapodistrian University of Athens (UOA), Greece 15.90 14.51 171 -12.0%
256 Polytechnic University of Catalonia (UPC), Spain 11.92 14.50 92 17.4%
257 University of Trieste (UNITS), Italy 9.59 14.38 167 44.6%
258 University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague (UCT), Czech Republic 19.76 14.36 31 -29.9%
259 Curie Institute, France 19.41 14.33 208 -28.8%
260 University of Murcia (UMU), Spain 10.96 14.30 41 25.9%
261 Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań (AMU), Poland 11.23 14.26 60 22.5%
262 University of Tromsø - The Arctic University of Norway (UiT), Norway 18.56 14.17 73 -26.4%
263 Collège de France, France 12.94 13.96 235 4.0%
264 University of Surrey, United Kingdom (UK) 13.46 13.81 66 -1.1%
265 University of Porto (UP), Portugal 13.05 13.80 117 2.0%
266 University of Parma (UNIPR), Italy 9.16 13.60 65 43.1%
267 Oncode Institute, Netherlands 14.82 13.43 98 -12.6%
268 University of Augsburg, Germany 8.63 13.33 43 48.9%
269 University of Nantes, France 10.44 13.31 163 22.9%
270 Budapest University of Technology and Economics (BME), Hungary 6.14 13.28 47 108.4%
271 University of Genova, Italy 8.52 13.11 204 48.3%
272 University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg 13.10 13.09 47 -3.7%
273 University of Seville (US), Spain 14.11 13.03 103 -11.0%
274 University of Greifswald, Germany 11.53 12.98 59 8.5%
275 Johannes Kepler University of Linz (JKU), Austria 4.25 12.86 41 192.1%
276 Eötvös Loránd University (ELTE), Hungary 12.30 12.49 125 -2.1%
277 University of La Laguna (ULL), Spain 12.10 12.48 83 -0.6%
278 University of Limerick (UL), Ireland 10.11 12.47 35 18.9%
279 London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM), United Kingdom (UK) 7.12 12.38 72 67.5%
280 University of Oulu, Finland 10.77 12.26 76 9.8%
281 Scuola Normale Superiore (SNS), Italy 9.12 12.24 153 29.4%
282 University of London - Royal Holloway (RHUL), United Kingdom (UK) 12.82 11.80 117 -11.2%
283 University of Crete (UOC), Greece 14.68 11.73 49 -23.0%
284 University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom (UK) 12.14 11.61 87 -7.8%
285 NERC British Antarctic Survey (BAS), United Kingdom (UK) 14.87 11.60 55 -24.7%
286 The Open University (OU), United Kingdom (UK) 9.42 11.53 55 18.0%
287 University of Aalborg (AAU), Denmark 7.92 11.49 53 39.9%
288 IMDEA Institutes, Spain 14.66 11.46 61 -24.6%
289 Institut Polytechnique de Bordeaux (Bordeaux INP), France 11.36 11.40 90 -3.3%
290 European Commission (EC), Belgium 4.75 11.34 47 130.1%
291 Institut Laue Langevin (ILL), France 12.69 11.30 75 -14.2%
292 University of Lübeck, Germany 7.19 11.26 88 51.1%
293 Champalimaud Foundation, Portugal 10.89 11.21 25 -0.8%
294 Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas (FORTH), Greece 12.28 11.13 46 -12.6%
295 University of Kaiserslautern (TU Kaiserslautern), Germany 12.33 11.02 45 -13.9%
296 University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (BOKU), Austria 9.50 10.97 41 11.3%
297 Tampere University, Finland 18.08 10.96 177 -41.6%
298 Cancer Research UK (CRUK), United Kingdom (UK) 9.69 10.89 116 8.4%
299 Spanish National Center for Cardiovascular Research (CNIC), Spain 8.66 10.88 32 21.1%
300 Interuniversity Microelectronics Centre (IMEC), Belgium 7.03 10.66 39 46.3%
301 University of Debrecen, Hungary 10.11 10.64 95 1.5%
302 Grenoble Institute of Technology (Grenoble INP), France 15.43 10.53 235 -34.2%
303 Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Spain 10.01 10.46 51 0.7%
304 Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust (OUH), United Kingdom (UK) 8.17 10.45 136 23.2%
305 Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg (OVGU), Germany 8.65 10.42 51 16.1%
306 Medical University of Innsbruck (MUI), Austria 6.19 10.31 39 60.5%
307 University of Paderborn (UPB), Germany 7.00 10.22 31 40.8%
308 Italian Foundation for Cancer Research (FIRC), Italy 4.99 10.21 33 97.2%
309 Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (SIB), Switzerland 9.90 10.20 106 -0.6%
310 Gulbenkian Science Institute (IGC), Portugal 6.88 10.13 31 42.0%
311 University of Alcalá (UAH), Spain 10.53 10.05 43 -7.9%
312 University Institute of France (IUF), France 5.59 10.05 117 73.3%
313 Polytechnic University of Turin, Italy 7.72 9.95 65 24.3%
314 NERC National Oceanography Centre (NOC), United Kingdom (UK) 7.00 9.82 64 35.2%
315 Jacobs University Bremen, Germany 9.66 9.72 27 -2.9%
316 National Centre for Scientific Research 'Demokritos' (NCSR), Greece 5.22 9.69 125 79.1%
317 Jaume I University (UJI), Spain 10.47 9.66 59 -11.1%
318 National University of Ireland Galway (NUI Galway), Ireland 8.88 9.63 46 4.7%
319 Palacky University (PU), Czech Republic 17.28 9.52 92 -46.9%
320 Sanofi, France 4.43 9.46 33 105.8%
321 University of Kent, United Kingdom (UK) 8.16 9.45 35 11.7%
322 National Institute for Research in Computer Science and Control (INRIA), France 5.31 9.45 510 71.5%
323 University of Plymouth, United Kingdom (UK) 10.93 9.38 50 -17.2%
324 The National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (NASU), Ukraine 7.44 9.26 174 20.0%
325 Institut Mines-Télécom (IMT), France 7.45 9.21 328 19.3%
326 Loughborough University, United Kingdom (UK) 9.36 9.15 53 -5.8%
327 Elettra - Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Italy 7.71 9.09 44 13.6%
328 European Southern Observatory (ESO), Germany 8.12 9.07 86 7.7%
329 Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Norway 7.87 8.97 30 9.8%
330 University of Osnabrück (Uni Osnabrück), Germany 5.84 8.93 27 47.5%
331 Wrocław University of Science and Technology (WRUT), Poland 5.33 8.89 39 60.7%
332 University of Salzburg, Austria 4.37 8.88 27 96.1%
333 University of Perugia, Italy 6.18 8.85 155 38.1%
334 Natural History Museum, United Kingdom (UK) 9.51 8.85 57 -10.3%
335 University of Valladolid (UVa), Spain 5.31 8.83 30 60.2%
336 University of Minho (UM), Portugal 7.05 8.83 82 20.7%
337 Bangor University, United Kingdom (UK) 5.64 8.81 35 50.7%
338 University of Vigo (UVIGO), Spain 5.79 8.79 39 46.3%
339 University of Mons (UMONS), Belgium 10.85 8.76 33 -22.1%
340 CIC nanoGUNE Consolider, Spain 8.87 8.74 34 -5.0%
341 French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea (Ifremer), France 6.21 8.69 74 35.0%
342 New University of Lisbon (UNL), Portugal 8.18 8.66 79 2.1%
343 University of Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines (UVSQ), France 11.33 8.65 275 -26.4%
344 University of Silesia (US), Poland 9.07 8.60 30 -8.6%
345 Università della Svizzera Italiana (USI), Switzerland 9.35 8.58 36 -11.4%
346 University of Bari Aldo Moro (UniBA), Italy 9.42 8.57 167 -12.3%
347 University of Portsmouth, United Kingdom (UK) 5.66 8.56 46 45.8%
348 BASF SE, Germany 6.53 8.45 43 24.6%
349 Basque Research and Technology Alliance (BRTA), Spain 8.42 54 N/A
350 National Physical Laboratory (NPL), United Kingdom (UK) 7.07 8.38 45 14.3%
351 Babraham Institute, United Kingdom (UK) 9.82 8.35 32 -18.0%
352 Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES), France 6.83 8.33 142 17.7%
353 University of Coimbra (UC), Portugal 10.06 8.33 100 -20.2%
354 University of the Balearic Islands (UIB), Spain 10.40 8.31 43 -23.0%
355 University Clermont Auvergne, France 9.11 8.25 161 -12.6%
356 University of Neuchâtel (UniNE), Switzerland 7.06 8.25 24 12.7%
357 University of Castilla-La Mancha (UCLM), Spain 5.33 8.09 60 46.3%
358 Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Germany 10.67 8.03 25 -27.4%
359 Gdańsk University of Technology (GUT), Poland 4.32 8.00 18 78.7%
360 University of Alicante (UA), Spain 6.49 7.86 54 16.9%
361 International Solvay Institutes, Belgium 9.04 7.81 37 -16.7%
362 Slovak Academy of Sciences (SAS), Slovakia 6.66 7.76 106 12.3%
363 Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Germany 6.54 7.75 29 14.2%
364 University of Hull, United Kingdom (UK) 9.74 7.74 36 -23.3%
365 National Interuniversity Consortium of Materials Science and Technology (INSTM), Italy 5.40 7.73 51 38.2%
366 Nottingham Trent University, United Kingdom (UK) 4.77 7.63 31 54.3%
367 University of Málaga (UMA), Spain 7.72 7.61 42 -4.9%
368 Northumbria University, United Kingdom (UK) 4.96 7.53 36 46.2%
369 Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI), Ireland 7.23 7.44 48 -0.7%
370 Pablo de Olavide University (UPO), Spain 4.88 7.33 37 44.7%
371 National Museum of Natural History (MNHN), France 9.93 7.29 152 -29.2%
372 University of Eastern Piedmont "Amedeo Avogadro" (UNIPMN), Italy 5.10 7.12 127 34.6%
373 Catalan Health Institute (ICS), Spain 10.09 7.11 94 -32.1%
374 Chimie ParisTech (ENSCP), France 7.65 7.02 146 -11.6%
375 ALBA Synchrotron, Spain 4.52 7.00 49 49.3%
376 University of Savoy (USMB), France 8.79 6.99 196 -23.4%
377 University of Roma Tre, Italy 11.21 6.99 84 -39.9%
378 AgroParisTech, France 6.03 6.97 211 11.5%
379 International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Austria 7.55 6.95 46 -11.2%
380 University of Modena and Reggio Emilia (UNIMORE), Italy 4.29 6.92 65 55.6%
381 University of Kassel, Germany 9.95 6.91 24 -33.0%
382 Novo Nordisk A/S, Denmark 2.59 6.88 29 156.2%
383 University of Cantabria (UC), Spain 9.81 6.82 94 -32.9%
384 University of Insubria, Italy 4.65 6.77 41 40.5%
385 Vilnius University (VU), Lithuania 8.56 6.76 85 -23.9%
386 Czech Technical University in Prague (CTU), Czech Republic 8.36 6.74 94 -22.3%
387 École Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Montpellier (ENSCM), France 6.21 6.70 89 4.0%
388 Chemnitz University of Technology (TU Chemnitz), Germany 7.61 6.62 27 -16.1%
389 Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), Netherlands 10.44 6.59 40 -39.1%
390 Kazan Federal University (KFU), Russia 6.59 6.51 38 -4.7%
391 Institute of Molecular Biology gGmbH (IMB), Germany 8.34 6.50 14 -24.9%
392 Ural Federal University (UrFU), Russia 10.09 6.45 36 -38.4%
393 VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd., Finland 7.21 6.41 91 -14.3%
394 Union of the German Academies of Sciences and Humanities, Germany 4.40 6.38 83 39.7%
395 King Juan Carlos University (URJC), Spain 4.81 6.34 23 27.0%
396 France Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy, France 6.64 6.33 115 -8.2%
397 Bayer AG, Germany 5.68 6.31 35 7.2%
398 Birkbeck, University of London (BBK), United Kingdom (UK) 7.16 6.30 48 -15.2%
399 École Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Rennes (ENSCR), France 8.65 6.30 62 -29.8%
400 Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH), Greece 7.06 6.29 62 -14.1%
401 Basque Center for Macromolecular Design and Engineering, Spain 4.55 6.29 30 33.2%
402 Comenius University in Bratislava (UK), Slovakia 4.25 6.22 98 41.1%
403 University of Burgos (UBU), Spain 2.45 6.20 13 144.5%
404 University of Zagreb, Croatia 5.20 6.19 61 14.9%
405 World Health Organization (WHO), Switzerland 4.76 6.19 61 25.4%
406 University of Hohenheim, Germany 4.41 6.17 21 35.0%
407 Academy of Athens, Greece 2.11 6.15 23 180.6%
408 University of Cagliari (UNICA), Italy 7.95 6.15 78 -25.4%
409 International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory (INL), Portugal 3.89 6.12 30 51.8%
410 Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Finland 8.30 6.11 33 -29.1%
411 Telethon Foundation, Italy 6.22 6.10 28 -5.3%
412 Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, United Kingdom (UK) 5.29 6.07 109 10.7%
413 National Research University Higher School of Economics (HSE), Russia 5.72 6.07 80 2.3%
414 National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ), Poland 10.19 6.04 145 -42.8%
415 University of Szeged (SZTE), Hungary 5.08 6.03 32 14.4%
416 German Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG), Germany 6.77 6.02 11 -14.2%
417 Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg (TUBAF), Germany 3.82 6.00 20 51.3%
418 University of Wuppertal, Germany 6.90 5.98 80 -16.4%
419 University of Ioannina (UOI), Greece 5.41 5.96 82 6.2%
420 NHS Lothian, United Kingdom (UK) 6.08 5.88 87 -6.7%
421 Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL), Switzerland 8.67 5.87 37 -34.6%
422 Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (LSTM), United Kingdom (UK) 9.27 5.86 26 -39.0%
423 AGH University of Science and Technology (AGH UST), Poland 6.77 5.86 157 -16.6%
424 Center for Cooperative Research in Biosciences (CIC bioGUNE), Spain 5.96 5.76 30 -6.7%
425 C. H. Boehringer Sohn AG & Co. KG (Boehringer Ingelheim), Germany 7.63 5.74 21 -27.4%
426 University of Verona (UNIVR), Italy 7.93 5.68 43 -30.9%
427 Ligue Contre Le Cancer, France 2.90 5.65 42 87.9%
428 NERC National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS), United Kingdom (UK) 4.19 5.63 46 29.7%
429 National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Russia 5.25 5.55 162 1.9%
430 National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), Greece 5.38 5.55 120 -0.6%
431 École Pratique des Hautes Études (EPHE), France 7.10 5.55 195 -24.7%
432 University of Belgrade, Serbia 9.71 5.46 127 -45.7%
433 University of Patras, Greece 3.66 5.45 26 43.3%
434 CY Cergy Paris University, France 6.11 5.44 45 -14.1%
435 Paris-Est Créteil University (UPEC), France 3.84 5.40 61 35.6%
436 University of Burgundy, France 5.64 5.40 50 -7.7%
437 Technical University of Madrid (UPM), Spain 9.71 5.37 37 -46.6%
438 Tomsk State University (TSU), Russia 6.09 5.37 122 -15.0%
439 Centre for Cooperative Research in Biomaterials (CIC biomaGUNE), Spain 4.45 5.34 37 15.7%
440 Gustave Eiffel University, France 5.86 5.31 79 -12.7%
441 Sofia University St. Kliment Ohridski, Bulgaria 5.20 5.26 72 -2.5%
442 Bauman Moscow State Technical University (BMSTU), Russia 1.06 5.26 10 378.9%
443 Germany Federal Ministry of Health (BMG), Germany 1.19 5.24 32 324.1%
444 University of A Coruña (UDC), Spain 6.17 5.22 18 -18.4%
445 Ilmenau University of Technology (TU Ilmenau), Germany 2.80 5.21 11 79.3%
446 University of Catania, Italy 5.47 5.16 134 -9.1%
447 British Geological Survey (BGS), United Kingdom (UK) 5.29 5.15 38 -6.2%
448 University of Navarra (UNAV), Spain 8.42 5.14 29 -41.1%
449 University of Orléans, France 8.25 5.14 60 -39.9%
450 Warsaw University of Technology (WUT), Poland 5.49 5.11 89 -10.3%
451 University of Rouen, France 3.86 5.07 36 26.6%
452 Caen University (UNICAEN), France 4.67 5.06 51 4.7%
453 University of Eastern Finland (UEF), Finland 7.11 5.04 66 -31.7%
454 Miguel Hernández University of Elche (UMH), Spain 7.05 5.03 22 -31.2%
455 University of Ferrara (UNIFE), Italy 3.74 5.02 77 29.4%
456 University of Namur (UNamur), Belgium 5.19 4.96 19 -7.9%
457 European X-ray Free-Electron Laser Facility GmbH (XFEL), Germany 2.77 4.90 38 70.8%
458 University of La Rioja (UR), Spain 3.15 4.87 15 49.4%
459 Medical University of Graz (Med Uni Graz), Austria 5.39 4.84 35 -13.4%
460 Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies (DIAS), Ireland 3.93 4.83 27 18.5%
461 Institute Gustave-Roussy (IGR), France 5.19 4.80 61 -11.0%
462 Royal Veterinary College, University of London (RVC), United Kingdom (UK) 1.78 4.76 32 158.0%
463 University of Essex, United Kingdom (UK) 7.29 4.67 21 -38.3%
464 Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI), Netherlands 5.04 4.66 25 -10.7%
465 Charles III University of Madrid (UC3M), Spain 2.88 4.65 23 55.5%
466 University of Palermo (UNIPA), Italy 2.46 4.63 73 81.5%
467 European Magnetic Field Laboratory (EMFL), Germany 3.40 4.60 42 30.5%
468 University of Angers, France 4.49 4.60 53 -1.1%
469 Le Mans University, France 4.84 4.54 26 -9.6%
470 Brno University of Technology (BUT), Czech Republic 2.86 4.51 73 52.3%
471 Center of Advanced European Studies and Research (CAESAR), Germany 3.64 4.50 24 19.1%
472 University of Calabria (UNICAL), Italy 8.11 4.50 80 -46.6%
473 Maria Curie-Skłodowska University (UMCS), Poland 3.53 4.48 12 22.3%
474 Liverpool John Moores University (LJMU), United Kingdom (UK) 6.84 4.43 33 -37.5%
475 University of Camerino (UNICAM), Italy 1.95 4.42 37 118.5%
476 Norway Ministry of Trade, Industry and Fisheries, Norway 4.91 4.38 55 -13.9%
477 NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH), United Kingdom (UK) 5.09 4.36 25 -17.4%
478 Peoples Friendship University of Russia (PFUR), Russia 1.39 4.29 19 197.9%
479 Paris Observatory, France 5.62 4.27 187 -26.9%
480 Catholic University of the Sacred Heart (UCSC), Italy 3.92 4.27 32 4.9%
481 Total S.A., France 1.55 4.25 19 163.5%
482 Norwegian Research Centre AS (NORCE), Norway 3.96 4.24 52 3.3%
483 University of Siena (UNISI), Italy 5.62 4.23 102 -27.5%
484 Bruno Kessler Foundation (FBK), Italy 2.64 4.20 75 53.5%
485 European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), United Kingdom (UK) 4.43 4.20 14 -8.6%
486 Royal Dutch Shell plc (Shell), Netherlands 2.31 4.14 19 72.7%
487 Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Denmark 3.87 4.13 20 2.7%
488 University of Brescia (UNIBS), Italy 3.78 4.12 51 5.2%
489 Institut d'Optique Graduate School (IOGS), France 4.69 4.07 169 -16.4%
490 National University of Science and Technology (MISIS), Russia 6.85 4.06 70 -42.8%
491 University of Poitiers, France 5.64 4.05 27 -30.7%
492 Wetsus Centre of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology, Netherlands 3.38 4.02 11 14.7%
493 Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT), Finland 4.83 4.00 115 -20.2%
494 Linnaeus University (LNU), Sweden 3.67 3.95 14 3.7%
495 European Space Agency (ESA), France 3.93 3.93 24 -3.5%
496 Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (BAS), Bulgaria 9.68 3.91 102 -61.1%
497 Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology (LIST), Luxembourg 5.42 3.90 12 -30.6%
498 Semmelweis University (SE), Hungary 4.87 3.89 34 -23.0%
499 Barcelona Supercomputing Center (BSC), Spain 2.70 3.85 36 37.2%
500 Center for Physical Sciences and Technology (FTMC), Lithuania 2.89 3.83 10 27.7%

Footnote

Each year, the Nature Index publishes tables based on counts of high-quality research outputs in the previous calendar year. Users please note:

  1. The data behind the tables are based on a relatively small proportion of total research papers, they cover the natural sciences only and outputs are non-normalized (that is, they don’t reflect the size of the country or institution, or its overall research output).
  2. The Nature Index is one indicator of institutional research performance. The metrics of Count and Share used to order Nature Index listings are based on an institution’s or country’s publication output in 82 natural-science journals, selected on reputation by an independent panel of leading scientists in their fields.
  3. Nature Index recognizes that many other factors must be taken into account when considering research quality and institutional performance; Nature Index metrics alone should not be used to assess institutions or individuals.
  4. Nature Index data and methods are transparent and available under a creative commons licence at natureindex.com.

The Nature Index database undergoes regular updating, corrections, adjustment of institutional hierarchies, and removal of retracted papers and thus the live website can differ from the frozen annual tables.

*The change in adjusted Share accounts for the small annual variation in the total number of articles in Nature Index journals. Share values have been adjusted to 2020 levels to calculate the percentage change. For more information on the adjustment, please see the Adjusted metric explainer.