2021 tables: Institutions

The 2021 tables are based on Nature Index data from 1 January 2020 to 31 December 2020.

Table criteria

# Institution Share 2019 Share 2020 Count 2020 Change in Adjusted Share 2019-2020*
1 National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), Italy 136.10 152.46 743 8.0%
2 National Research Council (CNR), Italy 97.25 104.47 523 3.6%
3 University of Padova (UNIPD), Italy 46.37 47.02 355 -2.2%
4 Scientific Institute for Research, Hospitalization and Healthcare (IRCCS), Italy 46.65 44.58 243 -7.9%
5 Italian Institute of Technology (IIT), Italy 45.42 42.60 169 -9.6%
6 National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF), Italy 30.80 39.33 158 23.1%
7 University of Florence (UNIFI), Italy 24.94 38.16 233 47.5%
8 Sapienza University of Rome, Italy 50.31 35.19 331 -32.6%
9 University of Bologna (UNIBO), Italy 33.12 32.57 307 -5.2%
10 University of Milan (UNIMI), Italy 22.02 32.49 265 42.2%
11 University of Milano-Bicocca (UNIMIB), Italy 34.74 29.07 218 -19.3%
12 University of Naples Federico II (UNINA), Italy 26.35 28.18 276 3.1%
13 Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (SISSA), Italy 29.44 23.77 96 -22.1%
14 University of Pisa (UNIPI), Italy 20.21 23.73 250 13.2%
15 University of Turin (UNITO), Italy 21.92 23.33 251 2.6%
16 National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology (INGV), Italy 18.02 20.91 70 11.8%
17 Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Italy 16.23 20.87 154 24.0%
18 Polytechnic University of Milan, Italy 20.41 19.95 97 -5.8%
19 University of Trento (UNITN), Italy 15.45 18.84 193 17.5%
20 University of Salerno (UNISA), Italy 13.41 18.25 87 31.3%
21 University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy 14.39 16.24 159 8.8%
22 University of Pavia (UNIPV), Italy 15.27 14.53 205 -8.3%
23 University of Trieste (UNITS), Italy 9.59 14.38 167 44.6%
24 University of Parma (UNIPR), Italy 9.16 13.60 65 43.1%
25 University of Genova, Italy 8.52 13.11 204 48.3%
26 Scuola Normale Superiore (SNS), Italy 9.12 12.24 153 29.4%
27 Italian Foundation for Cancer Research (FIRC), Italy 4.99 10.21 33 97.2%
28 Polytechnic University of Turin, Italy 7.72 9.95 65 24.3%
29 Elettra - Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Italy 7.71 9.09 44 13.6%
30 University of Perugia, Italy 6.18 8.85 155 38.1%
31 University of Bari Aldo Moro (UniBA), Italy 9.42 8.57 167 -12.3%
32 National Interuniversity Consortium of Materials Science and Technology (INSTM), Italy 5.40 7.73 51 38.2%
33 University of Eastern Piedmont "Amedeo Avogadro" (UNIPMN), Italy 5.10 7.12 127 34.6%
34 University of Roma Tre, Italy 11.21 6.99 84 -39.9%
35 University of Modena and Reggio Emilia (UNIMORE), Italy 4.29 6.92 65 55.6%
36 University of Insubria, Italy 4.65 6.77 41 40.5%
37 University of Cagliari (UNICA), Italy 7.95 6.15 78 -25.4%
38 Telethon Foundation, Italy 6.22 6.10 28 -5.3%
39 University of Verona (UNIVR), Italy 7.93 5.68 43 -30.9%
40 University of Catania, Italy 5.47 5.16 134 -9.1%
41 University of Ferrara (UNIFE), Italy 3.74 5.02 77 29.4%
42 University of Palermo (UNIPA), Italy 2.46 4.63 73 81.5%
43 University of Calabria (UNICAL), Italy 8.11 4.50 80 -46.6%
44 University of Camerino (UNICAM), Italy 1.95 4.42 37 118.5%
45 Catholic University of the Sacred Heart (UCSC), Italy 3.92 4.27 32 4.9%
46 University of Siena (UNISI), Italy 5.62 4.23 102 -27.5%
47 Bruno Kessler Foundation (FBK), Italy 2.64 4.20 75 53.5%
48 University of Brescia (UNIBS), Italy 3.78 4.12 51 5.2%
49 University of Udine (UNIUD), Italy 2.47 3.76 80 46.9%
50 University of Salento, Italy 4.76 3.49 70 -29.2%
51 University of Sassari (UniSS), Italy 1.05 3.37 36 208.8%
52 Techint Group, Italy 2.78 3.23 21 11.8%
53 University of L'Aquila (UNIVAQ), Italy 3.22 3.12 34 -6.8%
54 Ca' Foscari University of Venice (UNIVE), Italy 2.13 2.79 39 26.0%
55 Italy Ministry of Health, Italy 2.27 2.72 73 15.9%
56 Marche Polytechnic University (UNIVPM), Italy 2.23 2.65 29 14.4%
57 Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA), Italy 1.80 2.58 56 37.9%
58 University of Chieti (Ud'A), Italy 4.44 2.57 13 -44.1%
59 Gran Sasso Science Institute (GSSI), Italy 1.30 2.51 41 86.8%
60 Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRIM), Italy 2.44 2.30 8 -9.2%
61 Bocconi University, Italy 1.79 2.27 6 21.9%
62 University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Italy 3.15 2.18 28 -33.1%
63 University of Messina (UNIME), Italy 2.71 2.15 67 -23.4%
64 Euro-Mediterranean Center on Climate Change (CMCC), Italy 1.09 1.85 11 64.0%
65 University of Basilicata, Italy 0.71 1.84 80 149.8%
66 Polytechnic University of Bari, Italy 1.98 1.70 104 -16.9%
67 Fondazione Piemontese per la Ricerca sul Cancro Onlus (FPRC), Italy 0.89 1.54 6 67.2%
68 National Institute of Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics (OGS), Italy 1.62 1.49 11 -11.4%
69 Institute for Scientific Interchange (ISI), Italy 1.98 1.42 9 -30.7%
70 University of Sannio, Italy 0.43 1.25 10 182.8%
71 Institute for the Study and Prevention of Cancer (ISPRO), Italy 0.02 1.23 6 7,593.3%
72 International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB), Italy 2.57 1.21 6 -54.6%
73 National Institute of Molecular Genetics “Romeo and Enrica Invernizzi” (INGM), Italy 1.16 8 N/A
74 Parthenope University of Naples, Italy 1.97 1.15 31 -43.6%
75 Il Museo della Fisica e il Centro Studi e Ricerche Enrico Fermi (Centro Fermi), Italy 0.93 1.11 45 15.0%
76 Niguarda Hospital, Italy 0.47 1.05 6 116.8%
77 University Hospital of Verona, Italy 0.15 1.03 9 566.4%
78 Italy Ministry of Education, Universities and Research (MIUR), Italy 2.25 1.02 5 -56.5%
79 Edmund Mach Foundation, Italy 0.59 1.01 7 63.5%
80 University of Tuscia (UNITUS), Italy 0.21 1.01 13 360.2%
81 Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies of Pisa (SSSA), Italy 2.47 0.89 8 -65.3%
82 Italian Space Agency (ASI), Italy 0.75 0.88 14 13.0%
83 Bracco Imaging S.p.A., Italy 0.83 2 N/A
84 Campus Bio-Medico University, Italy 0.15 0.79 6 406.7%
85 Council for Agricultural Research and Analysis of Agricultural Economics (CREA), Italy 0.55 0.78 5 36.2%
86 European Commission for the Control of Foot-and-Mouth Disease (EuFMD), Italy 0.75 1 N/A
87 ASST Fatebenefratelli-Sacco, Italy 0.24 0.74 3 199.6%
88 Veritas S.p.A., Italy 0.71 1 N/A
89 Venetian Institute of Molecular Medicine (VIMM), Italy 0.33 0.68 9 96.7%
90 Eni s.p.a., Italy 1.47 0.67 3 -55.7%
91 National Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (ISPRA), Italy 0.80 0.67 4 -18.9%
92 University of Molise (UNIMOL), Italy 0.12 0.67 15 451.3%
93 Asiago Novae and Symbiotic Stars Collaboration (ANS Collaboration), Italy 0.67 1 N/A
94 Orientale University of Naples, Italy 0.00 0.63 7 23,162.3%
95 BeDimensional Srl, Italy 0.47 0.58 6 19.3%
96 Human Technopole Foundation, Italy 0.27 0.56 10 99.5%
97 Ospedale Policlinico Casilino, Italy 0.54 2 N/A
98 Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn Napoli (SZN), Italy 2.43 0.53 5 -78.9%
99 IMT School for Advanced Studies Lucca, Italy 1.59 0.52 3 -68.4%
100 University of Teramo (UniTE), Italy 0.02 0.52 7 2,397.4%
101 ReiThera Srl, Italy 0.51 2 N/A
102 Pirelli Tyre S.p.A., Italy 0.51 2 N/A
103 Ulisse BioMed SRL, Italy 0.05 0.50 1 864.2%
103 Astronomical Station of Sozzago, Italy 0.50 1 N/A
104 Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Papa Giovanni XXIII (ASST-PG23), Italy 0.45 4 N/A
105 Ceinge - Biotecnologie Avanzate S.C. a r.l., Italy 0.56 0.45 5 -23.1%
106 Museo Civico di Rovereto, Italy 0.43 1 N/A
107 University of Urbino, Italy 2.08 0.43 36 -80.3%
108 Glass to Power Srl (G2P), Italy 0.36 0.40 2 5.2%
109 Edo and Elvo Tempia Valenta Foundation (FEETV), Italy 0.04 0.36 3 872.9%
110 National Interuniversity Consortium for the Physical Sciences of Matter (CNISM), Italy 0.47 0.36 5 -27.2%
111 Institute for Advanced Study (IUSS Pavia), Italy 0.01 0.35 4 6,233.4%
112 Associazione Astronomica Euganea, Italy 0.33 1 N/A
113 Azienda Ospedaliera Spedali Civili di Brescia, Italy 0.04 0.32 6 615.3%
114 Fondazione Monza e Brianza per il Bambino e la sua Mamma (Mbbm), Italy 0.31 4 N/A
115 Archaeological Park of Pompeii, Italy 0.30 1 N/A
115 Fondazione ETHOIKOS, Italy 0.30 1 N/A
116 University of Magna Graecia (UMG), Italy 0.56 0.30 3 -48.4%
117 Free University of Bozen-Bolzano (UniBz), Italy 1.19 0.30 2 -75.9%
118 European Academy of Bozen/Bolzano (EURAC), Italy 0.36 0.29 9 -20.0%
119 Legambiente, Italy 0.29 1 N/A
119 Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Italy 0.29 1 N/A
120 Istituto Nazionale di Alta Matematica "Francesco Severi" (INdAM), Italy 0.25 1 N/A
120 Fondazione EL.B.A. Nicolini, Italy 0.25 1 N/A
120 Ente Regionale per i Servizi all'Agricoltura e alle Foreste (ERSAF), Italy 0.25 1 N/A
120 Gran Paradiso National Park, Italy 0.25 1 N/A
120 Azienda Sanitaria Locale Napoli 1 Centro (ASL Napoli 1 Centro), Italy 0.25 1 N/A
120 Accelera Srl, Italy 0.25 1 N/A
121 Italy Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism (MiBACT), Italy 0.18 0.25 6 34.3%
122 Cogentech S.c.a.r.l., Italy 0.22 2 N/A
123 Bari University Hospital, Italy 0.01 0.22 3 3,988.8%
124 European Gravitational Observatory (EGO), Italy 0.42 0.21 7 -51.8%
125 Ente Nazionale Risi, Italy 0.20 2 N/A
126 University of Foggia (UNIFG), Italy 0.13 0.19 25 44.3%
127 Kayser Italia S.r.l., Italy 0.19 1 N/A
128 Pederzoli Hospital, Italy 0.19 2 N/A
129 Mediterranea University of Reggio Calabria (UNIRC), Italy 0.01 0.18 3 1,673.1%
130 G. Monasterio Foundation (FTGM), Italy 0.23 0.17 1 -30.4%
130 Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM), Italy 0.17 1 N/A
131 Compagnia di San Paolo, Italy 0.30 0.17 6 -47.3%
132 Azienda Ospedaliera Papa Giovanni XXIII, Italy 0.07 0.16 4 128.2%
133 GENERA, Italy 0.10 0.16 1 52.2%
134 Chip Computers S.R.L., Italy 0.14 1 N/A
134 Italian National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT), Italy 0.14 1 N/A
134 Milan Natural History Museum, Italy 0.14 1 N/A
135 Siena University Hospital, Italy 0.51 0.14 1 -73.7%
136 Rome International Center for Materials Science of Superstripes (RICMASS), Italy 0.15 0.14 2 -10.3%
137 Ospedale di Parma, Italy 0.01 0.13 3 896.4%
138 Giotto Biotech S.r.l., Italy 0.13 2 N/A
139 Center for Advanced Studies, Research and Development in Sardinia (CRS4), Italy 0.13 1 N/A
139 Istituto per le Piante da Legno e l’Ambiente (I.P.L.A. S.p.A.), Italy 0.13 1 N/A
139 Scriba Nanotecnologie S.r.l., Italy 0.13 1 N/A
140 ASST Gaetano Pini, Italy 0.12 1 N/A
141 Italian Navy, Italy 0.12 1 N/A
141 Centri Associati di Allergologica Molecolare (CAAM), Italy 0.12 1 N/A
142 University of Bergamo, Italy 0.51 0.12 8 -78.2%
143 Vittore Buzzi Children's Hospital, Italy 0.01 0.11 3 1,203.8%
144 Molecular Horizon srl, Italy 0.11 0.11 1 -5.9%
144 Azienda USL Toscana Centro, Italy 0.11 1 N/A
144 Central European Research Infrastructure Consortium (CERIC-ERIC), Italy 0.11 1 N/A
145 Sant'Orsola Malpighi Hospital, Italy 0.11 4 N/A
146 A.O.U. Citta della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, Italy 0.12 0.10 5 -17.6%
147 Lincean Academy, Italy 0.19 0.10 2 -48.1%
148 Museo Civico di Scienze Naturali di Bergamo, Italy 0.10 1 N/A
148 NIREOS S.R.L., Italy 0.10 1 N/A
148 Osservatorio Astrofisico R.P.Feynman, Italy 0.10 1 N/A
148 Cementir Holding NV, Italy 0.10 1 N/A
148 Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sardegna, Italy 0.10 1 N/A
148 Fidia Farmaceutici S.p.A., Italy 0.10 1 N/A
148 Next Geosolutions Europe Ltd, Italy 0.10 1 N/A
148 Istituto Statale Istruzione Secondaria Superiore G. B. Cerletti, Italy 0.10 1 N/A
149 ASST Monza, Italy 0.10 2 N/A
150 Antonio Cardarelli Hospital, Italy 0.01 0.09 1 531.1%
150 QI-Technologies S.r.l., Italy 0.09 1 N/A
150 Ricerca sul Sistema Energetico S.p.A. (RSE), Italy 0.09 1 N/A
150 Cicci Research s.r.l., Italy 0.09 1 N/A
151 Associazione Paleontologica Paleoartistica Italiana (APPI), Italy 0.09 1 N/A
152 La Vallonèa, Italy 0.08 1 N/A
152 Museo Scienze Naturali Brescia, Italy 0.08 1 N/A
152 Agency for Health Protection of Metropolitan Area of Milan (ATS), Italy 0.08 1 N/A
153 The World Academy of Sciences (TWAS), Italy 0.08 5 N/A
154 ASST Santi Paolo e Carlo, Italy 0.00 0.08 1 2,303.2%
154 Dompé Corporate, Italy 0.04 0.08 1 96.8%
154 Universita' degli Studi Niccolo' Cusano, Italy 0.08 1 N/A
155 Regione Lazio, Italy 0.24 0.07 2 -69.7%
156 MultiMedica Group, Italy 0.07 2 N/A
156 BioRep Srl, Italy 0.07 2 N/A
157 Soprintendenza Archeologia, Belle Arti e Paesaggio per le province di Verona, Italy 0.07 2 N/A
158 Isuschem Srl, Italy 0.07 1 N/A
159 Fondazione Ri.MED, Italy 0.29 0.06 1 -79.2%
160 AB Analitica Srl, Italy 0.06 0.06 1 -3.6%
160 Fondazione Umberto di Mario ONLUS, Italy 0.09 0.06 1 -39.3%
160 Immagina BioTechnology Srl, Italy 0.06 1 N/A
160 Accademia del Leviatano, Italy 0.06 1 N/A
161 University Hospitals Parma Medical Center, Italy 0.02 0.05 6 114.5%
162 ASST Lariana, Italy 0.04 0.05 2 15.4%
163 Ospedale S. Chiara, Italy 0.05 1 N/A
163 Parco Faunistico Piano dell’Abatino, Italy 0.05 1 N/A
163 Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell'Abruzzo e del Molise "G. Caporale" (IZSAM), Italy 0.05 1 N/A
164 Bioversity International, Italy 0.53 0.05 4 -91.1%
165 Menarini Silicon Biosystems, Italy 0.05 1 N/A
166 Museo delle Civiltà, Italy 0.48 0.04 2 -91.0%
167 Ospedale Santo Stefano, Italy 0.04 2 N/A
168 Arcoblu s.r.l., Italy 0.04 1 N/A
168 I-VET srl, Italy 0.04 1 N/A
168 SM Optics s.r.l., Italy 0.04 1 N/A
168 Genomics, Genetics and Biology Innovation Pole (POLO GGB), Italy 0.04 1 N/A
169 MUSE - Museo delle Scienze di Trento, Italy 0.20 0.04 2 -80.7%
170 ASST Mantova, Italy 0.04 1 N/A
171 HK3 Lab, Italy 0.04 1 N/A
171 Toma Advanced Biomedical Assays S.p.A., Italy 0.04 1 N/A
172 Labospace Srl, Italy 0.04 1 N/A
173 Isalit S.r.l., Italy 0.04 1 N/A
174 San Camillo-Forlanini Hospital, Italy 0.05 0.03 1 -26.9%
174 Scuola Agraria del Parco di Monza, Italy 0.03 1 N/A
175 ASUR Marche, Italy 0.03 1 N/A
175 Osservatorio Bernezzo, Italy 0.03 1 N/A
175 Gruppo Astrofili Montagna Pistoiese (GAMP), Italy 0.03 1 N/A
175 Società Astronomica G.V. Schiaparelli, Italy 0.03 1 N/A
176 Guglielmo Marconi University (GMU), Italy 0.22 0.03 54 -85.6%
177 General Hospital of Bolzano, Italy 0.03 1 N/A
178 IMA S.p.a., Italy 0.03 1 N/A
179 Agenzia Provinciale per l'Ambiente e la Tutela del Clima, Italy 0.03 1 N/A
180 EryDel SpA, Italy 0.03 1 N/A
181 Friulian Museum of Natural History, Italy 0.03 1 N/A
181 Diamante SRL, Italy 0.03 1 N/A
182 Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy 0.02 0.03 2 43.9%
183 Bellaria Hospital, Italy 0.01 0.03 1 157.1%
183 Theoreo Srl, Italy 0.15 0.03 1 -83.5%
184 University of Cassino and Southern Lazio (UNICAS), Italy 0.09 0.02 3 -72.9%
185 Kleio' Studio Associato di Ricerca, Italy 0.02 1 N/A
186 Kore University of Enna, Italy 0.02 1 N/A
187 Studio Oculistico d'Azeglio, Italy 0.02 1 N/A
188 Azienda Ospedaliera Ospedali Riuniti Marche Nord, Italy 0.02 1 N/A
189 San Bortolo Hospital, Italy 0.02 1 N/A
189 ASST Cremona, Italy 0.02 1 N/A
190 Grotte di Pradis, Italy 0.02 1 N/A
191 Italy Ministry of the Environment and Protection of Land and Sea (MATTM), Italy 0.00 0.02 4 2,321.1%
191 Italy Ministry of Infrastructures and Transport (MIT), Italy 0.00 0.02 4 2,321.1%
191 Italy Ministry of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Policies (MiPAAF), Italy 0.00 0.02 4 2,321.1%
191 Italy Ministry of Economy and Finance (MEF), Italy 0.00 0.02 4 2,321.1%
192 Italy Ministry of Defence (MDD), Italy 0.02 2 N/A
193 Osservatorio Felsina, Italy 0.02 1 N/A
193 Stazione Astronomica Descartes, Italy 0.02 1 N/A
193 Osservatorio Astronomico Geminiano Montanari, Italy 0.02 1 N/A
193 G. Pascoli Observatory, Italy 0.02 1 N/A
194 Hospital of Prato, Italy 0.02 1 N/A
195 Provincia autonoma di Bolzano, Italy 0.02 1 N/A
196 Azienda Ospedaliera Civile M.P. Arezzo, Italy 0.09 0.01 2 -84.8%
197 Edoardo Amaldi Foundation (F.E.A.), Italy 0.01 1 N/A
198 San Luigi University Hospital, Italy 0.12 0.01 1 -88.9%
199 Associazione per lo Studio della Trombosi in Cardiologia, Italy 0.01 1 N/A
200 Soprintendenza Archeologia, Belle Arti e Paesaggio per le Province di Barletta, Italy 0.01 1 N/A
201 Hospital Brotzu, Italy 0.01 1 N/A
201 Ospedale Sandro Pertini, Italy 0.01 1 N/A
201 Azienda Ospedaliera Cannizzaro - Catania, Italy 0.01 1 N/A
201 Azienda Sanitaria Locale TO4 di Ciriè, Chivasso e Ivrea (ASL TO4), Italy 0.01 1 N/A
201 S. Andrea Hospital, Italy 0.01 1 N/A
202 Leonardo S.p.A., Italy 0.00 0.01 1 54.3%
203 Monastero della Santa Croce di Fonte Avellana, Italy 0.01 1 N/A
203 Medit Silva Foundation, Italy 0.01 1 N/A
204 Ospedale di Circolo, Italy 0.00 0.01 3 643.9%
205 Maurizio Bufalini Hospital, Italy 0.07 0.01 1 -91.1%
206 Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell’Umbria e delle Marche “Togo Rosati” (IZSUM), Italy 0.01 1 N/A
207 Azienda Sanitaria Universitaria Integrata di Trieste, Italy 0.01 0.01 1 -42.2%
208 Hyblean Association for Research on Epidemiology, Italy 0.01 1 N/A
209 Università Iuav di Venezia (IUAV), Italy 0.00 0.01 5 36.2%
210 World Food Programme (WFP), Italy 0.00 2 N/A
211 Fondazione Michelangelo, Italy 0.00 1 N/A
212 San Giovanni Bosco Hospital, Italy 0.00 1 N/A
213 Azienda Ulss 3 Serenissima, Italy 0.00 1 N/A
214 Azienda Ospedaliera San Paolo, Italy 0.00 1 N/A
215 Gaetano Fucito Hospital, Italy 0.00 1 N/A
216 Azienda Universitario Ospedaliera di Cagliari, Italy 0.00 1 N/A
217 Mario Negri Sud Foundation (FMNS), Italy 0.01 0.00 1 -72.4%
217 Genextra S.p.A., Italy 0.01 0.00 1 -72.4%
217 European School of Molecular Medicine (SEMM), Italy 0.13 0.00 1 -98.0%
218 Innovative Solutions S.r.l., Italy 0.00 2 N/A
219 Cardiovascular Prevention Centre Udine, Italy 0.00 0.00 1 25.4%
220 Mediterranea Cardiocentro, Italy 0.00 0.00 1 25.4%
221 Associazione Calabrese di Epatologia (ACE), Italy 0.00 0.00 1 25.4%
222 Treviso General Hospital, Italy 0.01 0.00 3 -81.5%
223 Fondazione Cariplo, Italy 0.03 0.00 1 -97.3%
223 Intesa Sanpaolo, Italy 0.03 0.00 1 -97.3%

Footnote

Each year, the Nature Index publishes tables based on counts of high-quality research outputs in the previous calendar year. Users please note:

  1. The data behind the tables are based on a relatively small proportion of total research papers, they cover the natural sciences only and outputs are non-normalized (that is, they don’t reflect the size of the country or institution, or its overall research output).
  2. The Nature Index is one indicator of institutional research performance. The metrics of Count and Share used to order Nature Index listings are based on an institution’s or country’s publication output in 82 natural-science journals, selected on reputation by an independent panel of leading scientists in their fields.
  3. Nature Index recognizes that many other factors must be taken into account when considering research quality and institutional performance; Nature Index metrics alone should not be used to assess institutions or individuals.
  4. Nature Index data and methods are transparent and available under a creative commons licence at natureindex.com.

The Nature Index database undergoes regular updating, corrections, adjustment of institutional hierarchies, and removal of retracted papers and thus the live website can differ from the frozen annual tables.

*The change in adjusted Share accounts for the small annual variation in the total number of articles in Nature Index journals. Share values have been adjusted to 2020 levels to calculate the percentage change. For more information on the adjustment, please see the Adjusted metric explainer.