2021 tables: Countries/territories - physical sciences
The 2021 tables are based on Nature Index data from 1 January 2020 to 31 December 2020.
Each year, the Nature Index publishes tables based on counts of high-quality research outputs in the previous calendar year. Users please note:
- The data behind the tables are based on a relatively small proportion of total research papers, they cover the natural sciences only and outputs are non-normalized (that is, they don’t reflect the size of the country or institution, or its overall research output).
- The Nature Index is one indicator of institutional research performance. The metrics of Count and Share used to order Nature Index listings are based on an institution’s or country’s publication output in 82 natural-science journals, selected on reputation by an independent panel of leading scientists in their fields.
- Nature Index recognizes that many other factors must be taken into account when considering research quality and institutional performance; Nature Index metrics alone should not be used to assess institutions or individuals.
- Nature Index data and methods are transparent and available under a creative commons licence at natureindex.com.
The Nature Index database undergoes regular updating, corrections, adjustment of institutional hierarchies, and removal of retracted papers and thus the live website can differ from the frozen annual tables.