2020 tables: Institutions

The 2020 tables are based on Nature Index data from 1 January 2019 to 31 December 2019.

Table criteria

# Institution Share 2018 Share 2019 Count 2019 Change in Adjusted Share 2018-2019*
1 National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), Italy 136.00 136.10 707 -3.2%
2 National Research Council (CNR), Italy 103.48 97.25 501 -9.1%
3 Sapienza University of Rome, Italy 39.17 50.31 382 24.3%
4 Scientific Institute for Research, Hospitalization and Healthcare (IRCCS), Italy 42.57 46.65 223 6.0%
5 University of Padova (UNIPD), Italy 42.64 46.37 320 5.2%
6 Italian Institute of Technology (IIT), Italy 40.51 45.42 173 8.5%
7 University of Milano-Bicocca (UNIMIB), Italy 25.57 34.74 219 31.4%
8 University of Bologna (UNIBO), Italy 33.51 33.12 311 -4.4%
9 National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF), Italy 33.26 30.80 170 -10.4%
10 Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (SISSA), Italy 28.13 29.44 95 1.3%
11 University of Naples Federico II (UNINA), Italy 25.15 26.35 301 1.3%
12 University of Florence (UNIFI), Italy 34.25 24.94 188 -29.6%
13 University of Milan (UNIMI), Italy 29.07 22.02 215 -26.7%
14 University of Turin (UNITO), Italy 33.48 21.92 246 -36.7%
15 Polytechnic University of Milan, Italy 15.32 20.41 83 28.9%
16 University of Pisa (UNIPI), Italy 24.20 20.21 254 -19.2%
17 National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology (INGV), Italy 24.71 18.02 65 -29.4%
18 Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Italy 16.06 16.23 133 -2.3%
19 University of Trento (UNITN), Italy 14.91 15.45 163 0.3%
20 University of Pavia (UNIPV), Italy 15.67 15.27 213 -5.7%
21 University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy 17.72 14.39 159 -21.4%
22 University of Salerno (UNISA), Italy 11.92 13.41 80 8.8%
23 University of Roma Tre, Italy 10.10 11.21 114 7.4%
24 University of Trieste (UNITS), Italy 9.78 9.59 152 -5.2%
25 University of Bari Aldo Moro (UniBA), Italy 6.19 9.42 159 47.3%
26 University of Parma (UNIPR), Italy 8.95 9.16 47 -1.0%
27 Scuola Normale Superiore (SNS), Italy 7.57 9.12 150 16.6%
28 University of Genova, Italy 13.30 8.52 217 -38.0%
29 University of Calabria (UNICAL), Italy 6.25 8.11 85 25.5%
30 University of Cagliari (UNICA), Italy 7.60 7.95 68 1.1%
31 University of Verona (UNIVR), Italy 2.90 7.93 37 164.5%
32 Polytechnic University of Turin, Italy 8.26 7.72 53 -9.6%
33 Elettra - Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Italy 8.92 7.71 40 -16.3%
34 Telethon Foundation, Italy 3.08 6.22 33 95.2%
35 University of Perugia, Italy 10.86 6.18 161 -44.9%
36 University of Siena (UNISI), Italy 4.77 5.62 83 14.0%
37 University of Catania, Italy 9.47 5.47 120 -44.2%
38 National Interuniversity Consortium of Materials Science and Technology (INSTM), Italy 8.90 5.40 40 -41.3%
39 University of Eastern Piedmont "Amedeo Avogadro" (UNIPMN), Italy 4.54 5.10 142 8.7%
40 Italian Foundation for Cancer Research (FIRC), Italy 7.22 4.99 25 -33.1%
41 University of Salento, Italy 4.24 4.76 78 8.5%
42 University of Insubria, Italy 2.45 4.65 27 83.3%
43 University of Chieti (Ud'A), Italy 2.25 4.44 24 90.6%
44 University of Modena and Reggio Emilia (UNIMORE), Italy 5.52 4.29 49 -24.9%
45 Catholic University of the Sacred Heart (UCSC), Italy 3.01 3.92 29 26.1%
46 University of Brescia (UNIBS), Italy 5.40 3.78 45 -32.3%
47 University of Ferrara (UNIFE), Italy 5.47 3.74 83 -33.9%
48 University of L'Aquila (UNIVAQ), Italy 3.16 3.22 29 -1.5%
49 University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Italy 6.06 3.15 27 -49.8%
50 Techint Group, Italy 2.80 2.78 12 -3.8%
51 University of Messina (UNIME), Italy 5.23 2.71 37 -49.9%
52 Bruno Kessler Foundation (FBK), Italy 3.66 2.64 86 -30.3%
53 International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB), Italy 4.51 2.57 11 -44.9%
54 Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies of Pisa (SSSA), Italy 1.03 2.47 18 131.4%
55 University of Udine (UNIUD), Italy 3.26 2.47 77 -26.8%
56 University of Palermo (UNIPA), Italy 5.10 2.46 38 -53.4%
57 Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRIM), Italy 2.31 2.44 12 2.2%
58 Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn Napoli (SZN), Italy 2.27 2.43 14 3.6%
59 Italy Ministry of Health, Italy 1.91 2.27 85 15.0%
60 Italy Ministry of Education, Universities and Research (MIUR), Italy 1.00 2.25 6 118.0%
61 Marche Polytechnic University (UNIVPM), Italy 1.28 2.23 19 68.7%
62 Ca' Foscari University of Venice (UNIVE), Italy 1.74 2.13 19 18.5%
63 University of Urbino, Italy 1.01 2.08 37 99.0%
64 Institute for Scientific Interchange (ISI), Italy 2.02 1.98 9 -5.2%
65 Polytechnic University of Bari, Italy 2.12 1.98 115 -9.8%
66 Parthenope University of Naples, Italy 0.01 1.97 35 22,907.1%
67 University of Camerino (UNICAM), Italy 1.95 1.95 25 -3.4%
68 Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA), Italy 1.22 1.80 30 43.5%
69 Bocconi University, Italy 0.69 1.79 4 152.6%
70 National Institute of Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics (OGS), Italy 0.74 1.62 10 111.2%
71 IMT School for Advanced Studies Lucca, Italy 0.33 1.59 5 359.3%
72 Eni s.p.a., Italy 1.00 1.47 4 41.9%
73 Gran Sasso Science Institute (GSSI), Italy 1.41 1.30 37 -11.2%
74 Free University of Bozen-Bolzano (UniBz), Italy 0.35 1.19 5 228.6%
75 Euro-Mediterranean Center on Climate Change (CMCC), Italy 2.51 1.09 7 -58.1%
76 University of Sassari (UniSS), Italy 1.78 1.05 14 -42.7%
77 World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO), Italy 0.93 3 N/A
78 Il Museo della Fisica e il Centro Studi e Ricerche Enrico Fermi (Centro Fermi), Italy 0.74 0.93 37 20.8%
79 Fondazione Piemontese per la Ricerca sul Cancro Onlus (FPRC), Italy 4.05 0.89 6 -78.7%
80 National Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (ISPRA), Italy 0.42 0.80 6 84.9%
81 Italian Space Agency (ASI), Italy 1.43 0.75 12 -49.3%
82 University of Basilicata, Italy 0.85 0.71 90 -19.3%
83 European Brain Research Institute (EBRI), Italy 0.63 6 N/A
84 Edmund Mach Foundation, Italy 0.85 0.59 4 -32.5%
85 Ceinge - Biotecnologie Avanzate S.C. a r.l., Italy 0.39 0.56 9 39.6%
86 University of Magna Graecia (UMG), Italy 0.54 0.56 9 -0.3%
87 Council for Agricultural Research and Analysis of Agricultural Economics (CREA), Italy 0.47 0.55 9 12.9%
88 Bioversity International, Italy 0.57 0.53 3 -9.5%
89 University of Bergamo, Italy 0.10 0.51 4 410.7%
90 Siena University Hospital, Italy 0.03 0.51 4 1,474.6%
91 Laboratory of Environmental Modelling and Monitoring for Sustainable Development (LaMMA), Italy 0.50 1 N/A
91 Hospital Rovereto, Italy 0.50 1 N/A
92 Museo delle Civiltà, Italy 0.48 3 N/A
93 National Interuniversity Consortium for the Physical Sciences of Matter (CNISM), Italy 0.35 0.47 6 29.6%
94 BeDimensional Srl, Italy 0.29 0.47 4 54.8%
95 Niguarda Hospital, Italy 0.38 0.47 5 19.2%
96 South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology, Italy 0.05 0.44 1 759.8%
97 BIOGENERA SpA, Italy 0.44 1 N/A
98 University of Sannio, Italy 0.49 0.43 11 -16.4%
99 European Gravitational Observatory (EGO), Italy 0.14 0.42 11 180.7%
100 Optoelettronica Italia S.R.L. (Optoi), Italy 0.40 2 N/A
101 Civil Protection Department, Italy 0.27 0.40 2 43.5%
102 LyondellBasell Industries, Italy 0.36 1 N/A
103 Glass to Power Srl (G2P), Italy 0.36 2 N/A
104 European Academy of Bozen/Bolzano (EURAC), Italy 0.69 0.36 12 -49.9%
105 European University Institute (EUI), Italy 0.17 0.33 1 93.5%
106 Venetian Institute of Molecular Medicine (VIMM), Italy 1.73 0.33 5 -81.4%
107 Compagnia di San Paolo, Italy 0.28 0.30 14 3.7%
108 Garofalo Health Care SpA (GHC), Italy 0.30 1 N/A
109 Fondazione Ri.MED, Italy 0.02 0.29 2 1,160.9%
110 Costa Edutainment S.p.A, Italy 0.29 1 N/A
111 Human Technopole Foundation, Italy 0.27 4 N/A
112 Cyanagen Srl, Italy 0.28 0.25 1 -12.9%
113 ASST Fatebenefratelli-Sacco, Italy 0.06 0.24 8 254.8%
114 Regione Lazio, Italy 0.08 0.24 2 177.2%
115 Toscana Life Science Foundation, Italy 0.36 0.24 1 -37.2%
116 G. Monasterio Foundation (FTGM), Italy 0.05 0.23 2 391.6%
117 Nerviano Medical Sciences S.r.l., Italy 0.23 1 N/A
118 Avantea s.r.l., Italy 0.15 0.23 1 42.9%
119 Guglielmo Marconi University (GMU), Italy 0.22 0.22 66 -3.5%
120 University of Tuscia (UNITUS), Italy 0.04 0.21 8 368.8%
121 MUSE - Museo delle Scienze di Trento, Italy 0.62 0.20 2 -68.4%
122 Azienda Ospedaliera Specialistica dei Colli (AORN Ospedali dei Colli), Italy 0.20 1 N/A
122 Azienda Sanitaria Locale - Roma 3 (ASL Roma 3), Italy 0.20 1 N/A
123 Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie (IZSVe), Italy 0.19 2 N/A
124 Space Dynamics Services s.r.l. - SpaceDyS, Italy 0.19 1 N/A
124 Lincean Academy, Italy 0.19 1 N/A
125 Italy Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism (MiBACT), Italy 0.33 0.18 4 -47.0%
126 Istituto Lombardo Accademia di Scienze e Lettere, Italy 0.25 0.17 1 -35.5%
126 CIMA Research Foundation, Italy 0.33 0.17 1 -51.6%
127 Campus Bio-Medico University, Italy 1.31 0.15 2 -88.9%
128 GVM Care & Research, Italy 0.05 0.15 1 182.9%
128 Theoreo Srl, Italy 0.05 0.15 1 178.6%
128 Azienda Sanitaria Locale di Collegno e Pinerolo (ASL TO3), Italy 0.15 1 N/A
129 University Hospital of Verona, Italy 0.06 0.15 4 132.2%
130 Rome International Center for Materials Science of Superstripes (RICMASS), Italy 0.34 0.15 2 -58.3%
131 CBM s.c.r.l., Italy 0.14 1 N/A
131 Tholos Group s.r.l, Italy 0.14 1 N/A
131 GEM Foundation (Global Earthquake Model), Italy 0.14 1 N/A
132 Fondazione Romeo ed Enrica Invernizzi, Italy 0.05 0.14 5 154.2%
133 University of Foggia (UNIFG), Italy 0.11 0.13 20 11.0%
134 European School of Molecular Medicine (SEMM), Italy 0.13 4 N/A
135 Naicons s.r.l., Italy 0.04 0.13 1 178.1%
135 Farmaceutici Damor S.p.A., Italy 0.06 0.13 1 117.6%
135 Hydra Solutions s.r.l., Italy 0.13 1 N/A
135 San Filippo Neri Hospital, Italy 0.13 1 N/A
136 Foro Italico University of Rome, Italy 0.12 4 N/A
137 A.O.U. Citta della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, Italy 0.04 0.12 2 191.6%
138 ppqSense S.r.l., Italy 0.12 2 N/A
139 Azienda Ospedaliero - Universitaria "Ospedali Riuniti" Trieste, Italy 0.02 0.12 1 616.9%
139 San Luigi University Hospital, Italy 0.03 0.12 1 286.9%
140 University of Molise (UNIMOL), Italy 0.62 0.12 6 -81.8%
141 Master-up s.r.l., Italy 0.14 0.11 3 -22.6%
141 Molecular Horizon srl, Italy 0.14 0.11 3 -22.6%
142 Lombardy and Emilia Romagna Experimental Zootechnic Institute (IZSLER), Italy 0.11 1 N/A
143 GENERA, Italy 0.03 0.10 1 248.2%
143 Azienda Ospedaliera Brotzu (AOB), Italy 0.09 0.10 1 11.1%
143 Saes Group, Italy 0.10 1 N/A
143 Comecer SpA, Italy 0.10 1 N/A
143 Toirano's Caves, Italy 0.10 1 N/A
143 Museo Archeologico Del Finale, Italy 0.10 1 N/A
143 Tecnologica S.r.l., Italy 0.10 1 N/A
144 Parco Tecnologico Padano (PTP), Italy 0.05 0.09 1 81.7%
144 Italian Workers' Compensation Authority (INAIL), Italy 0.09 1 N/A
144 ARIANET s.r.l., Italy 0.09 1 N/A
144 Chiesi Farmaceutici S. p. A., Italy 0.09 1 N/A
145 Fondazione Città della Speranza, Italy 0.16 0.09 2 -44.3%
146 Azienda Ospedaliera Civile M.P. Arezzo, Italy 0.02 0.09 2 302.2%
147 Gaetano Pini Orthopaedic Institute, Italy 0.09 1 N/A
148 Fondazione Umberto di Mario ONLUS, Italy 0.03 0.09 1 156.1%
149 University of Cassino and Southern Lazio (UNICAS), Italy 0.33 0.09 8 -74.3%
150 Clinica Veterinaria Lago Maggiore, Italy 0.08 1 N/A
151 Maurizio Bufalini Hospital, Italy 0.07 1 N/A
151 Micro Photon Devices S.r.l. (MPD), Italy 0.07 1 N/A
152 Ospedale Giustinianeo, Italy 0.07 1 N/A
153 Azienda Ospedaliera Papa Giovanni XXIII, Italy 0.38 0.07 2 -82.7%
154 Ospedale Cardinale Giovanni Panico, Italy 0.07 1 N/A
155 Fondazione Pisana per la Scienza Onlus (FPS), Italy 0.40 0.06 1 -84.9%
155 Politronica Inkjet Printing S.r.l., Italy 0.06 1 N/A
156 Azienda Ospedaliera SS. Antonio e Biagio e Cesare Arrigo, Italy 0.06 1 N/A
157 CCR-IMA CCR-IMA Laboratory, Italy 0.06 0.06 1 -3.3%
157 AB Analitica Srl, Italy 0.06 1 N/A
158 Galliera Hospital, Italy 0.12 0.05 2 -56.8%
159 Fondazione Matilde Tettamanti Menotti De Marchi Onlus, Italy 0.05 1 N/A
160 Sovrintendenza Capitolina, Italy 0.05 1 N/A
161 Ulisse BioMed SRL, Italy 0.73 0.05 1 -93.4%
161 Piedmont Reference Center for Epidemiology and Cancer Prevention (CPO Piemonte), Italy 0.05 1 N/A
162 Italian Malacological Society (SIM), Italy 0.05 1 N/A
163 Avantea Foundation, Italy 0.08 0.05 1 -42.8%
163 Ananas Nanotech S.r.l., Italy 0.09 0.05 1 -51.6%
163 San Camillo-Forlanini Hospital, Italy 0.05 1 N/A
164 Azienda Ospedaliera Spedali Civili di Brescia, Italy 0.18 0.04 3 -77.4%
165 ASST Lariana, Italy 0.04 2 N/A
166 Ecole Française de Rome, Italy 0.00 0.04 1 734.3%
167 ABIEL S.r.l., Italy 0.04 1 N/A
167 Osservatorio Astronomico di Campo Catino (OACC), Italy 0.04 1 N/A
167 Clinica Santa Rita, Italy 0.04 1 N/A
168 Dompé Corporate, Italy 0.04 2 N/A
169 Ospedale Civile San Giovanni di Dio, Italy 0.01 0.04 1 534.1%
169 SeeQC.EU, S.r.l., Italy 0.04 1 N/A
169 Genomix4Life Srl, Italy 0.04 1 N/A
170 Edo and Elvo Tempia Valenta Foundation (FEETV), Italy 0.21 0.04 1 -83.5%
170 Diatech Pharmacogenetics srl, Italy 0.04 1 N/A
171 Associazione Internazionale di Studi sul Mediterraneo e l’Oriente (ISMEO), Italy 0.03 1 N/A
172 Club Alpino Italiano (CAI), Italy 0.10 0.03 1 -67.8%
172 Euro-Mediterranean Institute of Science and Technology (IEMEST), Italy 0.03 1 N/A
173 Fondazione Cariplo, Italy 0.12 0.03 3 -75.1%
173 Intesa Sanpaolo, Italy 0.12 0.03 3 -75.1%
174 Ospedale Pediatrico Microcitemico Antonio Cao, Italy 0.03 2 N/A
175 Azienda Sanitaria di Firenze (ASF), Italy 0.03 0.03 2 -20.2%
176 Oncology Research Centre of Mercogliano (CROM), Italy 0.03 1 N/A
177 Acciaierie Venete S.p.A., Italy 0.00 0.03 1 18,520.5%
178 University Hospitals Parma Medical Center, Italy 0.26 0.02 1 -90.7%
179 University of Teramo (UniTE), Italy 0.78 0.02 4 -97.5%
180 Geomatics Research & Development s.r.l. (GReD), Italy 0.02 1 N/A
181 Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy 0.02 0.02 2 5.5%
182 European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and Water Column Observatory, European Research Infrastructure Consortium (EMSO ERIC), Italy 0.02 1 N/A
183 Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Lazio e Toscana (IZSLT), Italy 0.02 1 N/A
184 Institute for the Study and Prevention of Cancer (ISPRO), Italy 0.05 0.02 1 -68.4%
185 AOU Policlinico Gaetano Martino, Italy 0.01 1 N/A
186 Personal Genomics Srl, Italy 0.01 1 N/A
187 Antonio Cardarelli Hospital, Italy 0.01 1 N/A
188 Ospedale di Parma, Italy 0.02 0.01 1 -49.3%
189 Chamber of Commerce of Avellino, Italy 0.02 0.01 2 -40.5%
190 Academy of Sciences, Italy 0.01 1 N/A
191 Mediterranea University of Reggio Calabria (UNIRC), Italy 0.46 0.01 4 -97.9%
192 Bellaria Hospital, Italy 0.00 0.01 1 279.5%
193 Mario Negri Sud Foundation (FMNS), Italy 0.01 2 N/A
193 Genextra S.p.A., Italy 0.01 2 N/A
194 Azienda Sanitaria Universitaria Integrata di Trieste, Italy 0.14 0.01 1 -93.8%
195 Azienda Sanitaria Provinciale di Catanzaro (ASPCZ), Italy 0.08 0.01 1 -90.1%
196 Vittore Buzzi Children's Hospital, Italy 0.02 0.01 1 -57.7%
197 Tethys Research Institute, Italy 0.01 1 N/A
198 Enel S.p.A., Italy 0.01 0.01 2 -27.9%
199 Fondazione SSP, Italy 0.01 1 N/A
199 Azienda per i Servizi Sanitari Integrati di Trento, Italy 0.01 1 N/A
199 Azienda ULSS 6 Vicenza, Italy 0.01 1 N/A
199 Azienda Ulss 12 Veneziana, Italy 0.01 1 N/A
199 Treviso General Hospital, Italy 0.01 1 N/A
199 Rovigo Hospital, Italy 0.01 1 N/A
200 Bio4Dreams S.p.A., Italy 0.00 0.01 4 195.4%
201 Institute for Advanced Study (IUSS Pavia), Italy 0.10 0.01 3 -95.1%
202 Bari University Hospital, Italy 0.13 0.01 1 -96.3%
203 AstroCampania, Italy 0.00 1 N/A
204 ePhood SRL, Italy 0.00 3 N/A
205 Leonardo S.p.A., Italy 0.00 1 N/A
206 Azienda Ospedaliera Carlo Poma, Italy 0.00 1 N/A
207 United Hospitals Villa Sofia-Cervello, Italy 0.00 1 N/A
208 Hospital Amedeo di Savoia - Birago di Vische, Italy 0.00 1 N/A
209 Università Iuav di Venezia (IUAV), Italy 0.00 0.00 4 710.5%
210 ASST Santi Paolo e Carlo, Italy 0.07 0.00 1 -95.5%
210 San Carlo Borromeo Hospital, Italy 0.00 1 N/A
211 Cancer Prevention and Research Institute (AIRC), Italy 0.00 2 N/A
212 University of Macerata (UNIMC), Italy 0.08 0.00 2 -97.0%
212 Istituto Nazionale per la Valutazione del Sistema Educativo di Istruzione e di Formazione (INVALSI), Italy 0.00 2 N/A
212 National Institute for Documentation, Innovation and Educational Research (INDIRE), Italy 0.00 2 N/A
212 University for Foreigners Perugia (UNISTRAPG), Italy 0.00 2 N/A
212 Orientale University of Naples, Italy 0.00 2 N/A
213 San Salvatore Hospital, Italy 0.00 1 N/A
214 Cardiovascular Prevention Centre Udine, Italy 0.00 1 N/A
214 Cardiologia di Mercato S. Severino Hospital, Italy 0.00 1 N/A
215 International Institute for Advanced Scientific Studies (IIASS), Italy 0.00 1 N/A
216 Mediterranea Cardiocentro, Italy 0.00 1 N/A
217 AREA Science Park, Italy 0.00 0.00 1 -68.2%
218 Fondazione Europea Ricerca Biomedica (FERB Onlus), Italy 0.02 0.00 1 -95.3%
219 Associazione Calabrese di Epatologia (ACE), Italy 0.00 1 N/A
219 Ospedale di Circolo, Italy 0.00 1 N/A
220 Italy Ministry of the Environment and Protection of Land and Sea (MATTM), Italy 0.00 1 N/A
220 Italy Ministry of Infrastructures and Transport (MIT), Italy 0.00 1 N/A
220 Italy Ministry of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Policies (MiPAAF), Italy 0.00 1 N/A
220 Italy Ministry of Economy and Finance (MEF), Italy 0.00 1 N/A
221 Ansaldo Ricerche S.p.A., Italy 0.01 0.00 1 -98.4%
221 ABB S.p.A., Italy 0.01 0.00 1 -98.4%

Footnote

Each year, the Nature Index publishes tables based on counts of high-quality research outputs in the previous calendar year. Users please note:

  1. The data behind the tables are based on a relatively small proportion of total research papers, they cover the natural sciences only and outputs are non-normalized (that is, they don’t reflect the size of the country or institution, or its overall research output).
  2. The Nature Index is one indicator of institutional research performance. The metrics of Count and Share used to order Nature Index listings are based on an institution’s or country’s publication output in 82 natural-science journals, selected on reputation by an independent panel of leading scientists in their fields.
  3. Nature Index recognizes that many other factors must be taken into account when considering research quality and institutional performance; Nature Index metrics alone should not be used to assess institutions or individuals.
  4. Nature Index data and methods are transparent and available under a creative commons licence at natureindex.com.

The Nature Index database undergoes regular updating, corrections, adjustment of institutional hierarchies, and removal of retracted papers and thus the live website can differ from the frozen annual tables.

*The change in adjusted Share accounts for the small annual variation in the total number of articles in Nature Index journals. Share values have been adjusted to 2020 levels to calculate the percentage change. For more information on the adjustment, please see the Adjusted metric explainer.