2020 tables: Countries/territories

The 2020 tables are based on Nature Index data from 1 January 2019 to 31 December 2019.

Table criteria

# Country/territory Share 2018 Share 2019 Count 2019 Change in Adjusted Share 2018-2019*
1 Germany 4,595.65 4,559.46 8,803 -4.0%
2 United Kingdom (UK) 3,762.93 3,781.73 7,860 -2.8%
3 France 2,207.10 2,251.55 5,078 -1.3%
4 Switzerland 1,425.75 1,491.03 3,282 1.2%
5 Spain 1,169.68 1,168.03 2,786 -3.4%
6 Italy 1,068.68 1,037.28 2,658 -6.1%
7 Netherlands 937.89 933.31 2,411 -3.7%
8 Sweden 639.04 626.47 1,843 -5.2%
9 Russia 483.05 468.24 1,419 -6.2%
10 Belgium 421.89 413.06 1,180 -5.3%
11 Denmark 409.26 389.06 1,152 -8.0%
12 Austria 366.93 368.54 1,138 -2.8%
13 Poland 236.45 250.10 828 2.3%
14 Czech Republic 198.83 230.07 723 11.9%
15 Norway 201.83 229.72 737 10.1%
16 Finland 217.58 218.63 738 -2.8%
17 Portugal 166.92 144.82 558 -16.1%
18 Ireland 110.12 117.00 451 2.8%
19 Greece 84.24 86.18 423 -1.0%
20 Hungary 79.45 81.15 376 -1.2%
21 Slovenia 42.86 46.54 184 5.0%
22 Estonia 16.33 25.87 196 53.3%
23 Iceland 28.66 25.26 115 -14.7%
24 Romania 23.52 24.19 213 -0.5%
25 Ukraine 21.78 23.24 233 3.2%
26 Luxembourg 20.39 21.34 81 1.2%
27 Croatia 31.28 20.93 184 -35.3%
28 Slovakia 10.14 19.02 148 81.4%
29 Bulgaria 13.62 15.24 145 8.2%
30 Lithuania 13.49 14.58 120 4.5%
31 Serbia 12.26 12.29 180 -3.1%
32 Cyprus 9.41 7.49 138 -23.0%
33 Latvia 2.12 5.97 73 171.7%
34 Belarus 5.82 3.81 142 -36.6%
35 Monaco 1.79 2.85 20 54.2%
36 Malta 3.46 2.04 11 -43.1%
37 Macedonia 0.83 1.11 16 30.5%
38 Vatican City State (Holy See) 0.36 0.52 8 38.9%
39 Moldova 1.19 0.49 9 -59.7%
40 Albania 0.17 0.27 5 58.9%
41 Liechtenstein 0.66 0.18 2 -74.0%
42 Faroe Islands 0.17 0.15 3 -10.7%
43 Bosnia and Herzegovina 1.28 0.06 6 -95.3%
44 Andorra 0.06 1 N/A
45 San Marino 0.01 1 N/A
46 Kosovo 0.01 2 N/A
47 Montenegro 0.03 0.01 18 -64.5%

Footnote

Each year, the Nature Index publishes tables based on counts of high-quality research outputs in the previous calendar year. Users please note:

  1. The data behind the tables are based on a relatively small proportion of total research papers, they cover the natural sciences only and outputs are non-normalized (that is, they don’t reflect the size of the country or institution, or its overall research output).
  2. The Nature Index is one indicator of institutional research performance. The metrics of Count and Share used to order Nature Index listings are based on an institution’s or country’s publication output in 82 natural-science journals, selected on reputation by an independent panel of leading scientists in their fields.
  3. Nature Index recognizes that many other factors must be taken into account when considering research quality and institutional performance; Nature Index metrics alone should not be used to assess institutions or individuals.
  4. Nature Index data and methods are transparent and available under a creative commons licence at natureindex.com.

The Nature Index database undergoes regular updating, corrections, adjustment of institutional hierarchies, and removal of retracted papers and thus the live website can differ from the frozen annual tables.

*The change in adjusted Share accounts for the small annual variation in the total number of articles in Nature Index journals. Share values have been adjusted to 2020 levels to calculate the percentage change. For more information on the adjustment, please see the Adjusted metric explainer.