2019 tables: Institutions - physical sciences

Table criteria

The 2019 tables are based on Nature Index data from 1 January 2018 to 31 December 2018.

2018 Institution FC 2017 FC 2018
1 Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), China 516.48 534.99
2 Max Planck Society, Germany 310.49 310.15
3 French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), France 276.6 242.7
4 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), United States of America (USA) 213.15 223.34
5 Stanford University, United States of America (USA) 210.26 218.87
6 The University of Tokyo (UTokyo), Japan 217.58 203.76
7 Harvard University, United States of America (USA) 189.43 178.13
8 Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres, Germany 182.98 173.44
9 Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETH Zurich), Switzerland 144.75 162.88
10 Tsinghua University, China 145.28 157.64
11 Peking University (PKU), China 141.37 145.82
12 University of Cambridge, United Kingdom (UK) 145.61 139.59
13 University of Science and Technology of China (USTC), China 122.5 133.14
14 Nanjing University (NJU), China 114.75 126.6
15 National University of Singapore (NUS), Singapore 99.9 117.59
16 Princeton University, United States of America (USA) 104.33 116.73
17 University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley), United States of America (USA) 131.25 114.77
18 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (UCAS), China 73.54 113.11
19 Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Russia 90.42 111.14
20 Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore 113.97 110.54
21 National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), Italy 115.22 107.78
22 University of Oxford, United Kingdom (UK) 116.3 106.48
23 California Institute of Technology (Caltech), United States of America (USA) 102.98 106.35
24 Northwestern University (NU), United States of America (USA) 87.56 102.49
25 Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL), Switzerland 91.09 95.82
26 University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB), United States of America (USA) 108.65 95.33
27 University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), United States of America (USA) 112.43 95.18
28 Zhejiang University (ZJU), China 79.28 94.88
29 Fudan University, China 61.26 93.65
30 University of Maryland, College Park (UMCP), United States of America (USA) 103.61 91.93
31 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), United States of America (USA) 95.82 87.78
32 Soochow University, China 75.72 84.94
33 Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), South Korea 89.25 82.87
34 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC), United States of America (USA) 83.69 82.18
35 Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU), China 54.77 80.35
36 Imperial College London (ICL), United Kingdom (UK) 77.81 80.02
37 The University of Texas at Austin (UT Austin), United States of America (USA) 77.7 79.14
38 University of Michigan (U-M), United States of America (USA) 80.75 78.12
39 Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Spain 90.24 76.55
40 Kyoto University, Japan 74.61 76.33
41 The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State), United States of America (USA) 74.6 74.05
42 Tohoku University, Japan 59.94 73.57
43 Seoul National University (SNU), South Korea 71.18 71.46
44 Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), India 72.36 70.8
45 University of California, San Diego (UC San Diego), United States of America (USA) 79.09 69.67
46 Weizmann Institute of Science (WIS), Israel 72.11 69.6
47 Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), United States of America (USA) 63.23 68.66
48 National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), United States of America (USA) 65.5 67.82
49 Leibniz Association, Germany 66.64 67.38
50 Cornell University, United States of America (USA) 59.25 67.2
51 Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), United States of America (USA) 74.9 66.4
52 University of Colorado Boulder (CU-Boulder), United States of America (USA) 55.18 65.46
53 Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich (LMU), Germany 47.25 64.6
54 Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), China 52.87 62.79
55 RIKEN, Japan 61.51 62.75
56 Yale University, United States of America (USA) 51.92 62.64
57 The University of Chicago (UChicago), United States of America (USA) 70.29 62.52
58 University of Toronto (U of T), Canada 55.8 61.42
59 Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), United States of America (USA) 62.02 61.33
60 Purdue University, United States of America (USA) 58.12 61.19
61 Columbia University in the City of New York (CU), United States of America (USA) 64.39 61.06
62 University of Pennsylvania (Penn), United States of America (USA) 64.77 60.04
63 Beihang University (BUAA), China 36.27 58.92
64 European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Switzerland 54.76 57.81
65 Technical University of Munich (TUM), Germany 54.16 56.3
66 Xi'an Jiaotong University (XJTU), China 51.19 55.91
67 Wuhan University (WHU), China 39.37 55.7
68 University of Washington (UW), United States of America (USA) 50.41 55.43
69 University of Minnesota (UMN), United States of America (USA) 46.71 53.02
70 Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), United States of America (USA) 59.07 52.44
71 Technion-Israel Institute of Technology (IIT), Israel 39.41 51.93
72 Rice University, United States of America (USA) 58.79 51.58
73 University of Southampton (Soton), United Kingdom (UK) 42.82 51.4
74 National Research Council (CNR), Italy 57.15 51.03
75 Pierre and Marie Curie University (UPMC) - Paris 6, France 50.64 50.74
76 Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), South Korea 44.26 50.55
77 Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Netherlands 42.3 50.24
78 National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Japan 48.93 49.96
79 University of Copenhagen (UCPH), Denmark 45.56 49.9
80 Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), China 44.67 48.21
81 University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW-Madison), United States of America (USA) 56.71 47.51
82 Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (BIST), Spain 49.64 46.59
83 Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), South Korea 43.32 45.54
84 Sun Yat-sen University (SYSU), China 32.85 45.1
85 Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT), China 34.66 44.62
86 Utrecht University (UU), Netherlands 36.75 44.54
87 Durham University, United Kingdom (UK) 44.8 44.35
88 University College London (UCL), United Kingdom (UK) 44.07 44.34
89 Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), United States of America (USA) 46.29 44.15
90 Institute for Basic Science (IBS), South Korea 42.78 43.96
91 King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Saudi Arabia 47.23 43.85
92 The Ohio State University (OSU), United States of America (USA) 37.7 43.33
93 Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), South Korea 42.95 42.52
94 Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU), Germany 49.95 41.82
95 Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics (PI), Canada 50.72 40.9
96 Tel Aviv University (TAU), Israel 41.69 40.47
97 Tianjin University (TJU), China 31.11 40.35
98 Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission (CEA), France 45.46 40.3
99 University of Hamburg (UHH), Germany 46.14 40.2
100 University of Würzburg, Germany 47.58 40.14

The original version of this table (published 20 June 2019) used incorrect fractional counts, percentage changes and article counts to derive the rankings, which meant that some institutions were ranked incorrectly. The data and rankings were corrected on 12 August 2019.

Each year, the Nature Index publishes tables based on counts of high-quality research outputs in the previous calendar year. It is important for users to understand that the data behind the tables are based on a relatively small proportion of total research papers, that they cover the natural sciences only and that outputs are non-normalized (that is, they don’t reflect the size of the country or institution, or its overall research output). We encourage users to combine the free-to-access Nature Index data with information from other sources.

The Nature Index database undergoes regular updating, corrections, adjustment of institutional hierarchies, and removal of retracted papers and thus the live website can differ from the frozen annual tables.

*The change in adjusted FC accounts for the small annual variation in the total number of articles in Nature Index journals. FC values have been adjusted to 2018 levels to calculate the percentage change. For more information on the adjustment, please see the Adjusted metric explainer.