2019 tables: Institutions

The 2019 tables are based on Nature Index data from 1 January 2018 to 31 December 2018.

Table criteria

# Institution Share 2017 Share 2018 Count 2018 Change in Adjusted Share 2017-2018*
1 National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), Italy 119.02 136.00 718 7.8%
2 National Research Council (CNR), Italy 114.37 103.48 512 -14.6%
3 University of Padova (UNIPD), Italy 40.87 42.64 337 -1.5%
4 Scientific Institute for Research, Hospitalization and Healthcare (IRCCS), Italy 49.65 42.57 219 -19.1%
5 Italian Institute of Technology (IIT), Italy 37.00 40.51 144 3.4%
6 Sapienza University of Rome, Italy 40.21 39.17 401 -8.1%
7 University of Florence (UNIFI), Italy 33.25 34.25 233 -2.8%
8 University of Bologna (UNIBO), Italy 28.31 33.51 353 11.7%
9 University of Turin (UNITO), Italy 25.31 33.48 277 24.9%
10 National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF), Italy 34.86 33.26 136 -10.0%
11 University of Milan (UNIMI), Italy 35.23 29.07 240 -22.1%
12 Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (SISSA), Italy 27.08 28.13 94 -2.0%
13 University of Milano-Bicocca (UNIMIB), Italy 25.73 25.57 232 -6.2%
14 University of Naples Federico II (UNINA), Italy 22.72 25.15 306 4.5%
15 National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology (INGV), Italy 30.02 24.71 62 -22.3%
16 University of Pisa (UNIPI), Italy 12.34 24.20 303 85.2%
17 University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy 13.05 17.72 179 28.1%
18 Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Italy 14.55 16.06 154 4.2%
19 University of Pavia (UNIPV), Italy 13.74 15.67 239 7.6%
20 Polytechnic University of Milan, Italy 19.58 15.32 66 -26.2%
21 University of Trento (UNITN), Italy 19.20 14.91 169 -26.7%
22 University of Genova, Italy 11.29 13.30 279 11.2%
23 University of Salerno (UNISA), Italy 12.96 11.92 68 -13.2%
24 University of Perugia, Italy 13.57 10.86 184 -24.5%
25 University of Roma Tre, Italy 9.09 10.10 111 4.9%
26 University of Trieste (UNITS), Italy 11.24 9.78 184 -17.9%
27 University of Catania, Italy 7.11 9.47 159 25.7%
28 University of Parma (UNIPR), Italy 9.48 8.95 44 -10.9%
29 Elettra - Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Italy 8.92 8.92 42 -5.6%
30 National Interuniversity Consortium of Materials Science and Technology (INSTM), Italy 8.89 8.90 62 -5.5%
31 Polytechnic University of Turin, Italy 8.29 8.26 51 -5.9%
32 University of Cagliari (UNICA), Italy 6.64 7.60 87 8.1%
33 Scuola Normale Superiore (SNS), Italy 10.34 7.57 195 -30.9%
34 Italian Foundation for Cancer Research (FIRC), Italy 7.46 7.22 42 -8.6%
35 University of Calabria (UNICAL), Italy 8.32 6.25 93 -29.0%
36 University of Bari Aldo Moro (UniBA), Italy 7.31 6.19 188 -20.1%
37 University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Italy 0.60 6.06 24 851.1%
38 University of Modena and Reggio Emilia (UNIMORE), Italy 4.11 5.52 58 26.9%
39 University of Ferrara (UNIFE), Italy 5.83 5.47 84 -11.4%
40 University of Brescia (UNIBS), Italy 2.90 5.40 48 76.0%
41 University of Messina (UNIME), Italy 1.61 5.23 26 207.3%
42 University of Palermo (UNIPA), Italy 6.83 5.10 30 -29.5%
43 University of Siena (UNISI), Italy 3.60 4.77 111 25.2%
44 University of Eastern Piedmont "Amedeo Avogadro" (UNIPMN), Italy 5.22 4.54 154 -18.0%
45 International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB), Italy 4.24 4.51 12 0.6%
46 University of Salento, Italy 5.27 4.24 83 -24.0%
47 Fondazione Piemontese per la Ricerca sul Cancro Onlus (FPRC), Italy 1.33 4.05 11 186.4%
48 Bruno Kessler Foundation (FBK), Italy 1.49 3.66 95 132.3%
49 University of Udine (UNIUD), Italy 2.59 3.26 86 19.1%
50 University of L'Aquila (UNIVAQ), Italy 5.26 3.16 22 -43.2%
51 Telethon Foundation, Italy 3.99 3.08 21 -27.2%
52 Catholic University of the Sacred Heart (UCSC), Italy 4.66 3.01 28 -39.0%
53 University of Verona (UNIVR), Italy 4.20 2.90 28 -34.8%
54 Techint Group, Italy 2.11 2.80 14 25.1%
55 Euro-Mediterranean Center on Climate Change (CMCC), Italy 1.10 2.51 8 115.3%
56 University of Insubria, Italy 2.26 2.45 28 2.3%
57 Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRIM), Italy 2.72 2.31 11 -20.0%
58 Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn Napoli (SZN), Italy 2.57 2.27 12 -16.9%
59 University of Chieti (Ud'A), Italy 0.65 2.25 10 226.2%
60 Polytechnic University of Bari, Italy 1.74 2.12 131 14.9%
61 Institute for Scientific Interchange (ISI), Italy 1.09 2.02 10 75.2%
62 University of Camerino (UNICAM), Italy 3.22 1.95 15 -42.9%
63 Italy Ministry of Health, Italy 3.26 1.91 92 -44.9%
64 University of Sassari (UniSS), Italy 1.75 1.78 18 -4.1%
65 Ca' Foscari University of Venice (UNIVE), Italy 0.74 1.74 23 121.5%
66 Venetian Institute of Molecular Medicine (VIMM), Italy 0.86 1.73 13 89.4%
67 Italian Space Agency (ASI), Italy 1.72 1.43 23 -21.5%
68 Gran Sasso Science Institute (GSSI), Italy 4.15 1.41 39 -67.9%
69 Bracco Imaging S.p.A., Italy 0.18 1.41 3 644.8%
70 Campus Bio-Medico University, Italy 0.60 1.31 7 105.5%
71 Marche Polytechnic University (UNIVPM), Italy 2.54 1.28 15 -52.5%
72 Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA), Italy 1.52 1.22 16 -24.6%
73 Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies of Pisa (SSSA), Italy 0.56 1.03 8 74.4%
74 University of Urbino, Italy 3.00 1.01 40 -68.2%
75 Eni s.p.a., Italy 0.91 1.00 1 3.6%
75 Italy Ministry of Education, Universities and Research (MIUR), Italy 2.00 1.00 1 -52.9%
76 Italy Ministry of Defence (MDD), Italy 0.00 0.88 2 42,844.1%
77 University of Basilicata, Italy 0.06 0.85 130 1,161.2%
78 Edmund Mach Foundation, Italy 1.85 0.85 7 -56.6%
79 Laboratory of Nanomedicine and Clinical Biophotonics (LABION), Italy 0.79 1 N/A
80 University of Teramo (UniTE), Italy 0.03 0.78 3 2,110.6%
81 Fondazione del Piemonte per l’Oncologia (FPO), Italy 0.76 3 N/A
82 Il Museo della Fisica e il Centro Studi e Ricerche Enrico Fermi (Centro Fermi), Italy 0.88 0.74 28 -20.6%
83 National Institute of Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics (OGS), Italy 0.90 0.74 5 -22.1%
84 Ulisse BioMed SRL, Italy 0.73 2 N/A
85 Bocconi University, Italy 1.40 0.69 3 -53.7%
86 European Academy of Bozen/Bolzano (EURAC), Italy 0.13 0.69 7 412.5%
87 University of Molise (UNIMOL), Italy 0.13 0.62 10 338.8%
88 MUSE - Museo delle Scienze di Trento, Italy 0.62 5 N/A
89 Bioversity International, Italy 0.57 5 N/A
90 Alfasigma S.p.A., Italy 0.55 1 N/A
91 University of Magna Graecia (UMG), Italy 0.40 0.54 3 26.8%
92 University of Sannio, Italy 0.59 0.49 12 -21.6%
93 Council for Agricultural Research and Analysis of Agricultural Economics (CREA), Italy 0.45 0.47 6 -0.9%
94 Mediterranea University of Reggio Calabria (UNIRC), Italy 0.12 0.46 2 272.5%
95 National Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (ISPRA), Italy 0.67 0.42 5 -41.4%
96 Fondazione Pisana per la Scienza Onlus (FPS), Italy 0.30 0.40 1 25.8%
96 Tre Altamira s.r.l., Italy 0.40 1 N/A
97 Ceinge - Biotecnologie Avanzate S.C. a r.l., Italy 0.50 0.39 3 -26.2%
98 Azienda Ospedaliera Papa Giovanni XXIII, Italy 0.26 0.38 3 35.7%
99 Niguarda Hospital, Italy 0.47 0.38 5 -23.5%
100 Toscana Life Science Foundation, Italy 0.36 4 N/A
101 National Interuniversity Consortium for the Physical Sciences of Matter (CNISM), Italy 2.15 0.35 6 -84.5%
102 Free University of Bozen-Bolzano (UniBz), Italy 0.20 0.35 2 62.2%
103 Rome International Center for Materials Science of Superstripes (RICMASS), Italy 0.03 0.34 2 1,176.4%
104 IMT School for Advanced Studies Lucca, Italy 1.84 0.33 4 -82.9%
105 MDM Team Srl, Italy 0.33 1 N/A
105 CIMA Research Foundation, Italy 0.60 0.33 1 -47.6%
105 EcamRicert S.r.l., Italy 0.33 1 N/A
106 University of Cassino and Southern Lazio (UNICAS), Italy 0.26 0.33 4 18.6%
107 Italy Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism (MiBACT), Italy 0.00 0.33 3 8,107.7%
108 Engineering Ingegneria Informatica S.p.A., Italy 0.31 2 N/A
109 Museo Egizio, Italy 0.31 1 N/A
110 BeDimensional Srl, Italy 0.29 3 N/A
111 Compagnia di San Paolo, Italy 0.34 0.28 11 -20.5%
112 Chromaleont s.r.L., Italy 0.28 3 N/A
113 Cyanagen Srl, Italy 0.38 0.28 1 -30.1%
114 Civil Protection Department, Italy 0.07 0.27 3 253.5%
115 Idronaut S.r.l, Italy 0.27 2 N/A
116 University Hospitals Parma Medical Center, Italy 0.26 2 N/A
117 Arcadia SIT s.r.l., Italy 0.26 2 N/A
118 Istituto Lombardo Accademia di Scienze e Lettere, Italy 0.25 2 N/A
118 GasPlus Italiana S.r.l., Italy 0.25 1 N/A
118 Santa Marinella Research Institute (SMRI), Italy 0.25 1 N/A
119 Guglielmo Marconi University (GMU), Italy 0.56 0.22 97 -62.5%
120 Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM), Italy 1.48 0.22 3 -86.0%
121 Ospedale S.S. Annunziata Chieti, Italy 0.21 2 N/A
122 TES Pharma S.r.l., Italy 0.21 1 N/A
122 Hospital Bassini Cinisello Balsamo, Italy 0.21 1 N/A
123 Edo and Elvo Tempia Valenta Foundation (FEETV), Italy 0.22 0.21 2 -12.0%
124 NeuroTeam, Italy 0.21 1 N/A
125 Italian National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT), Italy 0.20 1 N/A
126 Azienda Ospedaliera Spedali Civili di Brescia, Italy 0.07 0.18 5 150.5%
127 Azienda Sanitaria Provinciale of Cosenza (ASP of Conseza), Italy 0.18 1 N/A
128 Azienda USL Toscana Centro, Italy 0.00 0.17 1 4,886.6%
128 European University Institute (EUI), Italy 0.05 0.17 1 198.9%
128 BeC S.r.l., Italy 0.17 1 N/A
128 Opificio delle Pietre Dure (OPD), Italy 0.17 1 N/A
128 Stelar Srl, Italy 0.17 1 N/A
128 Auxilium Vitae Volterra S.P.A., Italy 0.17 1 N/A
128 Hospital San Giovanni Calibita Fatebenefratelli, Italy 0.17 1 N/A
129 Fondazione Città della Speranza, Italy 0.03 0.16 4 495.0%
130 Avantea s.r.l., Italy 0.15 1 N/A
131 Menarini Silicon Biosystems, Italy 0.15 1 N/A
132 European Gravitational Observatory (EGO), Italy 0.34 0.14 5 -60.5%
133 Acquedotto Pugliese S.p.A., Italy 0.14 1 N/A
133 ST Microelectronics, Italy 0.14 1 N/A
133 CSMT Gestione S.c.a.r.l., Italy 0.14 1 N/A
133 Italfarmaco S.p.A., Italy 0.14 1 N/A
134 Master-up s.r.l., Italy 0.14 2 N/A
134 Molecular Horizon srl, Italy 0.14 2 N/A
135 Azienda Sanitaria Universitaria Integrata di Trieste, Italy 0.14 1 N/A
136 Bari University Hospital, Italy 0.02 0.13 2 685.6%
137 Flamma S.p.A., Italy 0.13 1 N/A
138 San Raffaele University of Rome (UniSanRaffaele), Italy 0.09 0.13 3 30.7%
139 Centre of Integrated Geomorphology for the Mediterranean Area (CGIAM), Italy 0.13 1 N/A
139 Italian Sports Medicine Federation (FMSI), Italy 0.13 1 N/A
139 Enrico Giotti S.p.A., Italy 0.13 1 N/A
139 Istituto Italiano di Preistoria e Protostoria (IIPP), Italy 0.13 1 N/A
140 Galliera Hospital, Italy 0.12 2 N/A
141 Fondazione Cariplo, Italy 0.04 0.12 3 199.1%
141 Intesa Sanpaolo, Italy 0.04 0.12 3 199.1%
142 University of Foggia (UNIFG), Italy 0.08 0.11 5 28.4%
143 BiEsseA Laboratori Analisi Veterinarie s.r.l, Italy 0.07 0.11 1 46.8%
143 Istituto Nazionale di Alta Matematica "Francesco Severi" (INdAM), Italy 0.61 0.11 1 -82.8%
144 Institute for Advanced Study (IUSS Pavia), Italy 0.47 0.10 3 -79.2%
145 Club Alpino Italiano (CAI), Italy 0.10 1 N/A
145 School of Advanced International Studies for Applied Theoretical and Non Linear Methodologies of Physics (SAISTMP), Italy 0.10 1 N/A
145 Institute for Scientific Methodology (ISEM), Italy 0.10 1 N/A
146 University of Bergamo, Italy 0.87 0.10 8 -89.5%
147 Ananas Nanotech S.r.l., Italy 0.09 1 N/A
147 Lead Discovery Siena, Italy 0.09 1 N/A
148 MolMed S.p.A., Italy 0.05 0.09 1 58.2%
149 Azienda Ospedaliera Brotzu (AOB), Italy 0.09 2 N/A
150 Azienda Sanitaria Provinciale di Catanzaro (ASPCZ), Italy 0.01 0.08 2 789.0%
151 Università degli Studi Suor Orsola Benincasa (UNISOB), Italy 0.08 1 N/A
151 University of Macerata (UNIMC), Italy 0.08 1 N/A
151 Mediterranean Institute of Oncology, Italy 0.08 1 N/A
151 Italian Aerospace Research Centre (CIRA), Italy 0.08 1 N/A
151 GMV Srl, Italy 0.08 1 N/A
152 Regione Lazio, Italy 0.08 2 N/A
153 Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Italy 0.08 1 N/A
153 Avantea Foundation, Italy 0.08 1 N/A
153 MIST E-R S.C.R.L., Italy 0.08 1 N/A
154 Azienda Ospedaliero - Universitaria "Policlinico - Vittorio Emanuele", Italy 0.04 0.07 2 75.5%
155 Sudanese and Sub-Saharan Studies Center (CSSeS), Italy 0.07 1 N/A
156 Azienda Ospedaliera di Cosenza, Italy 0.07 1 N/A
157 ASST Santi Paolo e Carlo, Italy 0.07 1 N/A
157 Novystem S.r.l., Italy 0.07 1 N/A
158 ASST Fatebenefratelli-Sacco, Italy 0.08 0.06 2 -28.0%
159 Kore University of Enna, Italy 0.04 0.06 3 69.0%
160 Emilia-Romagna High Technology Network, Italy 0.06 1 N/A
161 University Hospital of Verona, Italy 0.30 0.06 3 -80.2%
162 Studio Oculistico d'Azeglio, Italy 0.06 1 N/A
163 Institute for Stem Cell Biology, Regenerative Medicine and Innovative Therapies (ISBReMIT), Italy 0.09 0.06 1 -34.5%
164 Farmaceutici Damor S.p.A., Italy 0.06 1 N/A
164 CCR-IMA CCR-IMA Laboratory, Italy 0.06 1 N/A
164 Central European Research Infrastructure Consortium (CERIC-ERIC), Italy 0.06 1 N/A
165 Ansaldo Energia S.p.A., Italy 0.05 1 N/A
166 Theoreo Srl, Italy 0.05 1 N/A
167 Fondazione Romeo ed Enrica Invernizzi, Italy 0.07 0.05 2 -24.9%
168 GVM Care & Research, Italy 0.07 0.05 1 -34.7%
169 South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology, Italy 0.05 1 N/A
169 Beni culturali, Italy 0.05 1 N/A
170 Parco Tecnologico Padano (PTP), Italy 0.05 1 N/A
171 Giotto Biotech S.r.l., Italy 0.76 0.05 1 -94.1%
172 Institute for the Study and Prevention of Cancer (ISPRO), Italy 0.05 0.05 3 -13.1%
173 G. Monasterio Foundation (FTGM), Italy 0.29 0.05 1 -85.0%
173 E.P. Elettronica Progetti s.r.l., Italy 0.05 1 N/A
174 Naicons s.r.l., Italy 0.35 0.04 1 -88.4%
174 University of Tuscia (UNITUS), Italy 1.02 0.04 1 -96.0%
174 Kither Biotech S.r.l., Italy 0.04 1 N/A
175 Cancer Pharmacology Laboratory, AIRC Start-Up Unit, Italy 0.04 1 N/A
176 A.O.U. Citta della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, Italy 0.19 0.04 3 -80.1%
177 ASST Sette Laghi, Italy 0.00 0.04 1 1,539.5%
177 Azienda Socio-Sanitaria Territoriale (ASST) della Valle Olona, Italy 0.04 1 N/A
177 Azienda Ospedaliera "Bianchi Melacrino Morelli", Italy 0.04 1 N/A
178 Istituto Toscano Tumori (ITT), Italy 0.03 2 N/A
179 Fondazione Umberto di Mario ONLUS, Italy 0.03 1 N/A
180 Azienda Sanitaria di Firenze (ASF), Italy 0.01 0.03 3 276.9%
181 Siena University Hospital, Italy 0.06 0.03 1 -50.2%
181 Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Papa Giovanni XXIII (ASST-PG23), Italy 0.03 1 N/A
182 San Luigi University Hospital, Italy 0.06 0.03 1 -55.6%
183 Genetyx S.R.L., Italy 0.03 1 N/A
183 GENERA, Italy 0.03 1 N/A
184 Istituto Italiano di Paleontologia Umana (IsIPU), Italy 0.03 1 N/A
185 Ospedale di Parma, Italy 0.65 0.02 2 -96.6%
186 Zirichiltaggi - Sardinia Wildlife Conservation, Italy 0.02 1 N/A
187 Italian Cystic Fibrosis League (LIFC), Italy 0.02 1 N/A
188 Fondazione Europea Ricerca Biomedica (FERB Onlus), Italy 0.02 1 N/A
188 Fondazione Ri.MED, Italy 0.02 1 N/A
189 Azienda Ospedaliera Civile M.P. Arezzo, Italy 0.02 2 N/A
190 Mediteknology Srl, Italy 0.02 1 N/A
191 Vittore Buzzi Children's Hospital, Italy 0.03 0.02 1 -37.5%
192 Chamber of Commerce of Avellino, Italy 0.02 3 N/A
193 Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy 0.02 2 N/A
194 Associazione Italiana Allevatori (AIA), Italy 0.02 1 N/A
195 Biofordrug S.r.l., Italy 0.02 1 N/A
195 Azienda Ospedaliero - Universitaria "Ospedali Riuniti" Trieste, Italy 0.02 1 N/A
196 Azienda USL Toscana Sud Est, Italy 0.02 1 N/A
197 LUISS Guido Carli University, Italy 0.01 1 N/A
198 Associazione per lo Studio della Trombosi in Cardiologia, Italy 0.01 1 N/A
199 Azienda Sanitaria Locale Napoli 1 Centro (ASL Napoli 1 Centro), Italy 0.01 1 N/A
200 Ansaldo Ricerche S.p.A., Italy 0.00 0.01 1 702.3%
200 ABB S.p.A., Italy 0.00 0.01 1 702.3%
200 San Raffaele S.p.A., Italy 0.03 0.01 1 -66.2%
201 Serena Foundation Onlus - NeuroMuscular Omnicenter (NEMO), Italy 0.00 0.01 1 706.9%
202 Enel S.p.A., Italy 0.02 0.01 4 -52.4%
203 Nationalpark Stilfser Joch, Italy 0.01 1 N/A
204 Museo e Istituto Fiorentino di Preistoria, Italy 0.01 1 N/A
205 Parthenope University of Naples, Italy 0.11 0.01 27 -92.9%
206 ASL1 Massa e Carrara, Italy 0.01 1 N/A
207 Prima Archeologia del Mediterraneo di Partanna, Italy 0.01 1 N/A
207 Soprintendenza per i Beni Culturali e Ambientali di Trapani, Italy 0.01 1 N/A
207 Soprintendenza del Mare, Italy 0.01 1 N/A
207 Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Parma, Italy 0.01 1 N/A
208 General Hospital of Bolzano, Italy 0.01 3 N/A
209 Ospedale Civile San Giovanni di Dio, Italy 0.01 1 N/A
210 Institute for Applied Genomics (IGA), Italy 0.04 0.00 1 -87.9%
211 S. Agostino Estense Hospital, Italy 0.00 1 N/A
212 Ecole Française de Rome, Italy 0.00 1 N/A
213 Alphard Observatory (MPC K82), Italy 0.00 1 N/A
214 Fondazione Michelangelo, Italy 0.02 0.00 1 -74.9%
215 Pegaso University (Unipegaso), Italy 0.01 0.00 1 -72.4%
216 AREA Science Park, Italy 0.00 0.00 1 31.9%
217 Centro Diagnostico Italiano (CDI), Italy 0.00 1 N/A
218 Bellaria Hospital, Italy 0.00 1 N/A
218 Azienda Universitario Ospedaliera di Cagliari, Italy 0.00 1 N/A
219 Bio4Dreams S.p.A., Italy 0.00 1 N/A
220 Università Iuav di Venezia (IUAV), Italy 0.00 1 N/A
221 Acciaierie Venete S.p.A., Italy 0.01 0.00 1 -97.8%

Footnote

Each year, the Nature Index publishes tables based on counts of high-quality research outputs in the previous calendar year. Users please note:

  1. The data behind the tables are based on a relatively small proportion of total research papers, they cover the natural sciences only and outputs are non-normalized (that is, they don’t reflect the size of the country or institution, or its overall research output).
  2. The Nature Index is one indicator of institutional research performance. The metrics of Count and Share used to order Nature Index listings are based on an institution’s or country’s publication output in 82 natural-science journals, selected on reputation by an independent panel of leading scientists in their fields.
  3. Nature Index recognizes that many other factors must be taken into account when considering research quality and institutional performance; Nature Index metrics alone should not be used to assess institutions or individuals.
  4. Nature Index data and methods are transparent and available under a creative commons licence at natureindex.com.

The Nature Index database undergoes regular updating, corrections, adjustment of institutional hierarchies, and removal of retracted papers and thus the live website can differ from the frozen annual tables.

*The change in adjusted Share accounts for the small annual variation in the total number of articles in Nature Index journals. Share values have been adjusted to 2020 levels to calculate the percentage change. For more information on the adjustment, please see the Adjusted metric explainer.