2019 tables: Countries/territories - physical sciences

The 2019 tables are based on Nature Index data from 1 January 2018 to 31 December 2018.

Table criteria

# Country/territory Share 2017 Share 2018 Count 2018 Change in Adjusted Share 2017-2018*
1 Germany 1,571.58 1,582.35 3,332 -4.8%
2 United Kingdom (UK) 1,024.10 1,012.04 2,416 -6.6%
3 France 751.16 694.50 1,786 -12.6%
4 Switzerland 484.81 527.37 1,377 2.9%
5 Italy 495.26 513.37 1,338 -2.0%
6 Spain 413.39 408.54 1,176 -6.6%
7 Netherlands 309.85 324.57 847 -1.0%
8 Russia 251.23 315.01 977 18.6%
9 Sweden 189.16 196.56 606 -1.7%
10 Belgium 123.38 139.34 449 6.8%
11 Denmark 115.26 132.76 394 8.9%
12 Austria 137.71 131.89 490 -9.4%
13 Poland 98.13 117.19 530 12.9%
14 Czech Republic 64.66 76.89 376 12.4%
15 Finland 67.50 75.33 306 5.5%
16 Portugal 47.97 56.21 324 10.8%
17 Norway 28.74 39.65 189 30.4%
18 Greece 33.55 36.20 268 2.0%
19 Ireland 45.28 35.38 252 -26.1%
20 Hungary 21.12 26.36 236 18.0%
21 Slovenia 20.43 20.00 129 -7.4%
22 Croatia 10.47 16.56 162 49.5%
23 Ukraine 14.36 14.45 211 -4.8%
24 Romania 10.39 11.27 166 2.5%
25 Luxembourg 9.25 11.11 30 13.6%
26 Serbia 4.27 8.17 174 81.1%
27 Lithuania 5.02 8.03 111 51.2%
28 Bulgaria 4.76 6.46 136 28.4%
29 Cyprus 5.59 5.15 129 -12.8%
30 Iceland 2.64 4.05 21 44.8%
31 Estonia 10.16 4.03 119 -62.5%
32 Slovakia 6.23 2.78 96 -57.8%
33 Belarus 5.89 2.65 170 -57.5%
34 Malta 3.79 2.04 5 -49.2%
35 Latvia 0.35 1.01 62 174.4%
36 Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.87 0.78 5 -15.2%
37 Moldova 1.55 0.60 6 -63.1%
38 Macedonia 0.33 0.53 3 49.5%
39 Vatican City State (Holy See) 0.27 0.36 4 29.1%
40 Albania 0.17 1 N/A
41 Montenegro 0.04 0.02 2 -48.7%
42 Monaco 0.05 0.00 4 -96.8%

Footnote

Each year, the Nature Index publishes tables based on counts of high-quality research outputs in the previous calendar year. Users please note:

  1. The data behind the tables are based on a relatively small proportion of total research papers, they cover the natural sciences only and outputs are non-normalized (that is, they don’t reflect the size of the country or institution, or its overall research output).
  2. The Nature Index is one indicator of institutional research performance. The metrics of Count and Share used to order Nature Index listings are based on an institution’s or country’s publication output in 82 natural-science journals, selected on reputation by an independent panel of leading scientists in their fields.
  3. Nature Index recognizes that many other factors must be taken into account when considering research quality and institutional performance; Nature Index metrics alone should not be used to assess institutions or individuals.
  4. Nature Index data and methods are transparent and available under a creative commons licence at natureindex.com.

The Nature Index database undergoes regular updating, corrections, adjustment of institutional hierarchies, and removal of retracted papers and thus the live website can differ from the frozen annual tables.

*The change in adjusted Share accounts for the small annual variation in the total number of articles in Nature Index journals. Share values have been adjusted to 2020 levels to calculate the percentage change. For more information on the adjustment, please see the Adjusted metric explainer.