2019 tables: Countries/territories

Table criteria

The 2019 tables are based on Nature Index data from 1 January 2018 to 31 December 2018.

2018 Country/territory Share 2017 Share 2018
1 United States of America (USA) 19,999.69 20,425.42
2 China 9,270.61 11,383.07
3 Germany 4,444.14 4,595.65
4 United Kingdom (UK) 3,695.92 3,762.93
5 Japan 3,105.12 3,090.91
6 France 2,255.28 2,207.10
7 Canada 1,577.72 1,623.63
8 Switzerland 1,360.53 1,425.75
9 South Korea 1,302.46 1,352.05
10 Australia 1,106.25 1,257.47
11 Spain 1,110.28 1,169.68
12 Italy 1,045.72 1,068.68
13 India 958.36 963.22
14 Netherlands 923.05 937.89
15 Sweden 607.02 639.04
16 Israel 588.70 619.03
17 Singapore 599.11 607.14
18 Russia 413.52 483.05
19 Belgium 405.88 421.89
20 Denmark 365.72 409.26
21 Taiwan 425.63 393.28
22 Austria 375.93 366.93
23 Brazil 262.94 308.51
24 Poland 220.28 236.45
25 Finland 196.75 217.58
26 Norway 193.18 201.83
27 Czech Republic 195.50 198.83
28 Portugal 135.62 166.92
29 Saudi Arabia 140.45 134.05
30 New Zealand 130.27 124.52
31 Iran 88.14 118.47
32 Ireland 127.06 110.12
33 Chile 100.90 109.09
34 Mexico 80.79 102.48
35 Argentina 98.09 100.83
36 South Africa 70.01 90.77
37 Greece 83.09 84.24
38 Hungary 77.57 79.45
39 Turkey 59.64 72.97
40 Slovenia 40.99 42.86
41 Thailand 37.57 40.71
42 Croatia 28.49 31.28
43 Iceland 26.83 28.66
44 Pakistan 40.21 28.56
45 Romania 22.05 23.52
46 Ukraine 21.43 21.78
47 Luxembourg 18.97 20.39
48 United Arab Emirates 18.81 17.79
49 Colombia 17.38 17.56
50 Vietnam 10.28 16.78

Each year, the Nature Index publishes tables based on counts of high-quality research outputs in the previous calendar year. Users please note:

  1. The data behind the tables are based on a relatively small proportion of total research papers, they cover the natural sciences only and outputs are non-normalized (that is, they don’t reflect the size of the country or institution, or its overall research output).
  2. The Nature Index is one indicator of institutional research performance. The metrics of Count and Share used to order Nature Index listings are based on an institution’s or country’s publication output in 82 natural-science journals, selected on reputation by an independent panel of leading scientists in their fields.
  3. Nature Index recognizes that many other factors must be taken into account when considering research quality and institutional performance; Nature Index metrics alone should not be used to assess institutions or individuals.
  4. Nature Index data and methods are transparent and available under a creative commons licence at natureindex.com.

The Nature Index database undergoes regular updating, corrections, adjustment of institutional hierarchies, and removal of retracted papers and thus the live website can differ from the frozen annual tables.

*The change in adjusted Share accounts for the small annual variation in the total number of articles in Nature Index journals. Share values have been adjusted to 2020 levels to calculate the percentage change. For more information on the adjustment, please see the Adjusted metric explainer.