2019 tables: Countries/territories

Table criteria

The 2019 tables are based on Nature Index data from 1 January 2018 to 31 December 2018.

2018 Country/territory FC 2017 FC 2018
1 United States of America (USA) 19859.38 20061.64
2 China 9228.7 11183.75
3 Germany 4424.83 4472.62
4 United Kingdom (UK) 3672.59 3667.4
5 Japan 3088.25 2987.34
6 France 2234.45 2151.96
7 Canada 1563.41 1585.29
8 Switzerland 1351.55 1382.67
9 South Korea 1293.86 1322.84
10 Australia 1097.22 1235.78
11 Spain 1104.01 1130.23
12 Italy 1037.41 1003.79
13 India 960.68 929.22
14 Netherlands 915.51 910.6
15 Sweden 605.31 616.63
16 Israel 587.71 600.77
17 Singapore 598.33 597.81
18 Russia 409.49 451.95
19 Belgium 403.89 408.6
20 Denmark 361.23 397.32
21 Taiwan 424.31 380.95
22 Austria 375.52 356.77
23 Brazil 260.83 296.3
24 Poland 219.33 226.24
25 Finland 194.78 210.84
26 Czech Republic 194.04 193.08
27 Norway 189.33 191.89
28 Portugal 134.65 160.07
29 Saudi Arabia 139.84 131.73
30 New Zealand 128.58 121.12
31 Iran 88.05 110.5
32 Ireland 125.56 106.51
33 Chile 100.23 101.93
34 Argentina 97.74 99.49
35 Mexico 77.69 99.02
36 South Africa 68.65 89.08
37 Greece 82.96 78.7
38 Hungary 77.02 76.16
39 Turkey 59.06 70.07
40 Slovenia 40.72 40.62
41 Thailand 37.47 38.65
42 Croatia 27.48 30.16
43 Iceland 26.76 27.54
44 Pakistan 39.64 26.16
45 Romania 21.2 22.46
46 Ukraine 21.38 20.67
47 Luxembourg 18.97 19.53
48 United Arab Emirates 18.81 16.52
49 Estonia 26.09 16.18
50 Vietnam 10.28 16.11

The original version of this table (published 20 June 2019) used incorrect fractional counts, percentage changes and article counts to derive the rankings, which meant that some institutions were ranked incorrectly. The data and rankings were corrected on 12 August 2019.

Each year, the Nature Index publishes tables based on counts of high-quality research outputs in the previous calendar year. It is important for users to understand that the data behind the tables are based on a relatively small proportion of total research papers, that they cover the natural sciences only and that outputs are non-normalized (that is, they don’t reflect the size of the country or institution, or its overall research output). We encourage users to combine the free-to-access Nature Index data with information from other sources.

The Nature Index database undergoes regular updating, corrections, adjustment of institutional hierarchies, and removal of retracted papers and thus the live website can differ from the frozen annual tables.

*The change in adjusted FC accounts for the small annual variation in the total number of articles in Nature Index journals. FC values have been adjusted to 2018 levels to calculate the percentage change. For more information on the adjustment, please see the Adjusted metric explainer.