2018 tables: Countries/territories

Table criteria

The 2018 tables are based on Nature Index data from 1 January 2017 to 31 December 2017.

2017 Country/territory FC 2016 FC 2017
1 United States of America (USA) 20012.25 19859.38
2 China 8099.19 9228.7
3 Germany 4517.14 4424.83
4 United Kingdom (UK) 3734.95 3672.59
5 Japan 3178.42 3088.25
6 France 2329.44 2234.45
7 Canada 1581.45 1563.41
8 Switzerland 1349.95 1351.55
9 South Korea 1336.39 1293.86
10 Spain 1213.35 1104.01
11 Australia 1174.27 1097.22
12 Italy 1045.94 1037.41
13 India 905.2 960.68
14 Netherlands 936.91 915.51
15 Sweden 585.56 605.31
16 Singapore 555.54 598.33
17 Israel 593.9 587.71
18 Taiwan 444.17 424.31
19 Russia 398.22 409.49
20 Belgium 453.87 403.89
21 Austria 335.24 375.52
22 Denmark 396.9 361.23
23 Brazil 251.32 260.83
24 Poland 207.05 219.33
25 Finland 203.74 194.78
26 Czech Republic 172.65 194.04
27 Norway 162.1 189.33
28 Saudi Arabia 137.48 139.84
29 Portugal 141.65 134.65
30 New Zealand 121.93 128.58
31 Ireland 133.19 125.56
32 Chile 83.54 100.23
33 Argentina 93.57 97.74
34 Iran 91.02 88.05
35 Greece 88.46 82.96
36 Mexico 79.69 77.69
37 Hungary 77.32 77.02
38 South Africa 62.52 68.65
39 Turkey 73.47 59.06
40 Slovenia 36.14 40.72
41 Pakistan 28.74 39.64
42 Thailand 29.38 37.47
43 Croatia 21.07 27.48
44 Iceland 23.08 26.76
45 Estonia 22.16 26.09
46 Ukraine 27.52 21.38
47 Romania 25.28 21.2
48 Luxembourg 20.57 18.97
49 United Arab Emirates 17.33 18.81
50 Colombia 24.37 17.27

Each year, the Nature Index publishes tables based on counts of high-quality research outputs in the previous calendar year. It is important for users to understand that the data behind the tables are based on a relatively small proportion of total research papers, that they cover the natural sciences only and that outputs are non-normalized (that is, they don’t reflect the size of the country or institution, or its overall research output). We encourage users to combine the free-to-access Nature Index data with information from other sources.

The Nature Index database undergoes regular updating, corrections, adjustment of institutional hierarchies, and removal of retracted papers and thus the live website can differ from the frozen annual tables.

*The change in adjusted FC accounts for the small annual variation in the total number of articles in Nature Index journals. FC values have been adjusted to 2018 levels to calculate the percentage change. For more information on the adjustment, please see the Adjusted metric explainer.