2017 tables: Institutions - physical sciences

Table criteria

The 2017 tables are based on Nature Index data from 1 January 2016 to 31 December 2016.

2016 Institution FC 2015 FC 2016
1 Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), China 514.32 516.37
2 Max Planck Society, Germany 320.1 317.74
3 French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), France 325.33 307.68
4 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), United States of America (USA) 224.8 235.99
5 Stanford University, United States of America (USA) 227.48 223.28
6 Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres, Germany 202.89 189.94
7 Harvard University, United States of America (USA) 175.53 184.24
8 The University of Tokyo (UTokyo), Japan 223.25 168.52
9 University of Cambridge, United Kingdom (UK) 169.84 162.3
10 Peking University (PKU), China 123.74 141.49
11 Tsinghua University, China 117.99 136.19
12 University of Oxford, United Kingdom (UK) 130.09 126.58
13 Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETH Zurich), Switzerland 138 124.99
14 University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley), United States of America (USA) 125.51 123.35
15 Nanjing University (NJU), China 86.16 121.33
16 National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), Italy 123.46 118.97
17 Princeton University, United States of America (USA) 110.85 109.1
18 University of Science and Technology of China (USTC), China 93.68 108.33
19 California Institute of Technology (Caltech), United States of America (USA) 102.45 103.78
20 Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL), Switzerland 103.43 100.45
21 University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB), United States of America (USA) 117.36 98.56
22 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC), United States of America (USA) 108.35 98.44
23 Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore 100.43 97.52
24 National University of Singapore (NUS), Singapore 86.9 96.84
25 Northwestern University (NU), United States of America (USA) 90.61 95.26
26 University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), United States of America (USA) 108.38 92.52
27 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), United States of America (USA) 85.66 91.83
28 University of Michigan (U-M), United States of America (USA) 107.8 91.56
29 Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Russia 91.81 91.32
30 University of Maryland, College Park (UMCP), United States of America (USA) 105.38 90.76
31 Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), South Korea 86.17 90.4
32 The University of Texas at Austin (UT Austin), United States of America (USA) 84.77 84.79
33 Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Spain 74.52 82.25
34 Imperial College London (ICL), United Kingdom (UK) 87.39 80.18
35 The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State), United States of America (USA) 80.29 79.67
36 Tohoku University, Japan 87.66 78.56
37 National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), United States of America (USA) 65.36 75.73
38 Leibniz Association, Germany 81.88 75.16
39 Soochow University, China 66.8 74.22
40 Fudan University, China 79.62 71.81
41 University of California, San Diego (UC San Diego), United States of America (USA) 73.71 71.04
42 Cornell University, United States of America (USA) 81.47 71
43 Seoul National University (SNU), South Korea 86.16 70.74
44 Kyoto University, Japan 79.59 70.38
45 Columbia University in the City of New York (CU), United States of America (USA) 90.3 69.59
46 Yale University, United States of America (USA) 62.37 69.46
47 Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), United States of America (USA) 79.18 69.09
48 Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), United States of America (USA) 60.72 67.9
49 University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW-Madison), United States of America (USA) 74.81 67.23
50 Weizmann Institute of Science (WIS), Israel 56.63 67.12
51 University of Pennsylvania (Penn), United States of America (USA) 71.73 66.39
52 Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), United States of America (USA) 86.9 65.11
53 Zhejiang University (ZJU), China 63.5 63.75
54 Technical University of Munich (TUM), Germany 54.12 62.86
55 Rice University, United States of America (USA) 69.11 60.18
56 National Research Council (CNR), Italy 67.28 60.12
57 Purdue University, United States of America (USA) 61.09 59.69
58 Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission (CEA), France 64.23 59.57
59 RIKEN, Japan 69.77 58.44
60 University of Toronto (U of T), Canada 69.18 58.1
61 U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), United States of America (USA) 61.12 58.03
62 Durham University, United Kingdom (UK) 41.69 57.64
63 University of Minnesota (UMN), United States of America (USA) 61.84 57.12
64 University of Colorado Boulder (CU-Boulder), United States of America (USA) 60.79 56.62
65 Osaka University, Japan 49.07 56.44
66 Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich (LMU), Germany 54.3 55.84
67 Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), United States of America (USA) 59.33 55.81
68 Technion-Israel Institute of Technology (IIT), Israel 54.15 54.69
69 The University of Chicago (UChicago), United States of America (USA) 59.18 54.64
70 National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Japan 63.03 53.74
71 Pierre and Marie Curie University (UPMC) - Paris 6, France 55.68 53.26
72 European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Switzerland 63.12 53.18
73 University of Southampton (Soton), United Kingdom (UK) 41.45 52.76
74 Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), United States of America (USA) 50.42 52.42
75 Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), South Korea 60.69 52.24
76 Dresden University of Technology (TU Dresden), Germany 44.26 50.25
77 Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU), China 39.46 48.81
78 Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), South Korea 52.02 48.56
79 Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU), Germany 42.29 48.5
80 Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), India 62.57 48.42
81 Xi'an Jiaotong University (XJTU), China 37.47 48.24
82 King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Saudi Arabia 31.23 47.94
83 University of Washington (UW), United States of America (USA) 61.1 47.72
84 University College London (UCL), United Kingdom (UK) 51.42 47.68
85 Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (BIST), Spain 41.2 47.33
86 Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), China 40.78 46.81
87 University of Copenhagen (UCPH), Denmark 43.94 46.5
88 Autonomous University of Madrid (UAM), Spain 36.1 45.89
89 Homi Bhabha National Institute (HBNI), India 36.83 44.39
90 Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Netherlands 41.47 44.04
91 The Ohio State University (OSU), United States of America (USA) 42.6 43.55
92 University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland 43.68 43.5
93 Institute for Basic Science (IBS), South Korea 32.69 42.86
94 University of Paris Sud (UPSud), France 39.61 41.43
95 Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey (RU), United States of America (USA) 47.61 40.82
96 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (UCAS), China 24.14 39.69
97 Heidelberg University (Uni Heidelberg), Germany 33.47 39.59
98 Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech), Japan 42.58 39.53
99 Beihang University (BUAA), China 28.45 39.26
100 Johns Hopkins University (JHU), United States of America (USA) 42.07 38.32

Each year, the Nature Index publishes tables based on counts of high-quality research outputs in the previous calendar year. It is important for users to understand that the data behind the tables are based on a relatively small proportion of total research papers, that they cover the natural sciences only and that outputs are non-normalized (that is, they don’t reflect the size of the country or institution, or its overall research output). We encourage users to combine the free-to-access Nature Index data with information from other sources.

The Nature Index database undergoes regular updating, corrections, adjustment of institutional hierarchies, and removal of retracted papers and thus the live website can differ from the frozen annual tables.

*The change in adjusted FC accounts for the small annual variation in the total number of articles in Nature Index journals. FC values have been adjusted to 2018 levels to calculate the percentage change. For more information on the adjustment, please see the Adjusted metric explainer.