2017 tables: Countries/territories - physical sciences

The 2017 tables are based on Nature Index data from 1 January 2016 to 31 December 2016.

Table criteria

# Country/territory Share 2015 Share 2016 Count 2016 Change in Adjusted Share 2015-2016*
1 United States of America (USA) 5,321.28 5,071.73 7,431 -2.4%
2 China 2,228.52 2,547.47 3,816 17.0%
3 Germany 1,674.50 1,605.00 3,118 -1.9%
4 United Kingdom (UK) 1,074.61 1,031.19 2,286 -1.8%
5 Japan 1,094.93 994.88 1,675 -7.0%
6 France 871.71 812.42 1,821 -4.6%
7 South Korea 688.52 631.88 1,056 -6.1%
8 Italy 559.21 514.32 1,246 -5.9%
9 Switzerland 495.94 462.27 1,150 -4.6%
10 Spain 375.30 420.60 1,077 14.7%
11 Canada 407.46 360.10 827 -9.5%
12 Netherlands 282.16 304.00 811 10.3%
13 India 326.92 298.41 532 -6.6%
14 Australia 298.01 289.49 704 -0.6%
15 Russia 252.82 248.79 813 0.7%
16 Singapore 225.66 230.49 423 4.5%
17 Israel 227.15 229.58 489 3.5%
18 Sweden 201.50 164.19 516 -16.6%
19 Taiwan 182.56 159.74 452 -10.4%
20 Belgium 149.57 148.29 403 1.5%
21 Brazil 123.46 138.81 482 15.1%
22 Denmark 113.32 119.40 350 7.8%
23 Austria 125.14 114.08 425 -6.7%
24 Poland 127.74 109.36 484 -12.4%
25 Iran 50.55 68.71 155 39.1%
26 Finland 73.60 67.85 239 -5.7%
27 Saudi Arabia 40.10 53.97 185 37.8%
28 Chile 66.39 53.32 250 -17.8%
29 Ireland 33.74 52.13 206 58.1%
30 Portugal 41.77 45.59 245 11.7%
31 Czech Republic 51.02 45.48 289 -8.8%
32 Argentina 39.08 43.04 155 12.7%
33 Turkey 29.70 36.31 209 25.1%
34 Greece 45.13 35.65 232 -19.2%
35 Mexico 31.43 31.99 184 4.2%
36 Norway 23.35 29.73 170 30.3%
37 Hungary 43.47 25.78 183 -39.3%
38 Pakistan 17.03 24.83 119 49.2%
39 South Africa 30.23 22.92 154 -22.4%
40 Slovenia 27.73 20.28 141 -25.1%
41 Ukraine 22.36 15.73 168 -28.0%
42 New Zealand 15.79 15.33 93 -0.6%
43 Romania 16.48 13.37 162 -17.0%
44 Colombia 8.99 12.59 184 43.3%
45 Thailand 17.04 10.32 97 -38.0%
46 Luxembourg 4.01 9.61 26 145.2%
47 Croatia 11.33 8.88 103 -19.8%
48 Estonia 5.21 7.63 69 50.0%
49 Serbia 10.07 6.49 135 -34.0%
50 Cyprus 8.11 6.42 71 -19.0%

Footnote

Each year, the Nature Index publishes tables based on counts of high-quality research outputs in the previous calendar year. Users please note:

  1. The data behind the tables are based on a relatively small proportion of total research papers, they cover the natural sciences only and outputs are non-normalized (that is, they don’t reflect the size of the country or institution, or its overall research output).
  2. The Nature Index is one indicator of institutional research performance. The metrics of Count and Share used to order Nature Index listings are based on an institution’s or country’s publication output in 82 natural-science journals, selected on reputation by an independent panel of leading scientists in their fields.
  3. Nature Index recognizes that many other factors must be taken into account when considering research quality and institutional performance; Nature Index metrics alone should not be used to assess institutions or individuals.
  4. Nature Index data and methods are transparent and available under a creative commons licence at natureindex.com.

The Nature Index database undergoes regular updating, corrections, adjustment of institutional hierarchies, and removal of retracted papers and thus the live website can differ from the frozen annual tables.

*The change in adjusted Share accounts for the small annual variation in the total number of articles in Nature Index journals. Share values have been adjusted to 2020 levels to calculate the percentage change. For more information on the adjustment, please see the Adjusted metric explainer.