2017 tables: Countries/territories

Table criteria

The 2017 tables are based on Nature Index data from 1 January 2016 to 31 December 2016.

2016 Country/territory FC 2015 FC 2016
1 United States of America (USA) 20772.79 20012.25
2 China 7679.86 8099.19
3 Germany 4682.29 4517.14
4 United Kingdom (UK) 3807.28 3734.95
5 Japan 3417.45 3178.42
6 France 2440.92 2329.44
7 Canada 1777.46 1581.45
8 Switzerland 1347.8 1349.95
9 South Korea 1419.78 1336.39
10 Spain 1205.47 1213.35
11 Australia 1210.63 1174.27
12 Italy 1183.35 1045.94
13 Netherlands 869.61 936.91
14 India 944.12 905.2
15 Israel 612.9 593.9
16 Sweden 661.61 585.56
17 Singapore 590.16 555.54
18 Belgium 416.49 453.87
19 Taiwan 499.37 444.17
20 Russia 388.36 398.22
21 Denmark 374.3 396.9
22 Austria 321.43 335.24
23 Brazil 238.12 251.32
24 Poland 249.56 207.05
25 Finland 221.94 203.74
26 Czech Republic 161.02 172.65
27 Norway 152.89 162.1
28 Portugal 144.38 141.65
29 Saudi Arabia 124.43 137.48
30 Ireland 127.45 133.19
31 New Zealand 129.57 121.93
32 Argentina 97.32 93.57
33 Iran 69.3 91.02
34 Greece 104.04 88.46
35 Chile 103.06 83.54
36 Mexico 79.27 79.69
37 Hungary 90.35 77.32
38 Turkey 77.09 73.47
39 South Africa 75.82 62.52
40 Slovenia 47.31 36.14
41 Thailand 32.77 29.38
42 Pakistan 23.3 28.74
43 Ukraine 32.94 27.52
44 Romania 27.43 25.28
45 Colombia 17.17 24.37
46 Iceland 23.92 23.08
47 Estonia 18.47 22.16
48 Croatia 20.57 21.07
49 Luxembourg 9.32 20.57
50 Cyprus 16.82 18.4

Each year, the Nature Index publishes tables based on counts of high-quality research outputs in the previous calendar year. It is important for users to understand that the data behind the tables are based on a relatively small proportion of total research papers, that they cover the natural sciences only and that outputs are non-normalized (that is, they don’t reflect the size of the country or institution, or its overall research output). We encourage users to combine the free-to-access Nature Index data with information from other sources.

The Nature Index database undergoes regular updating, corrections, adjustment of institutional hierarchies, and removal of retracted papers and thus the live website can differ from the frozen annual tables.

*The change in adjusted FC accounts for the small annual variation in the total number of articles in Nature Index journals. FC values have been adjusted to 2018 levels to calculate the percentage change. For more information on the adjustment, please see the Adjusted metric explainer.