2016 tables: Countries/territories - physical sciences

The 2016 tables are based on Nature Index data from 1 January 2015 to 31 December 2015.

Table criteria

# Country/territory Share 2015 Count 2015
1 Germany 1,674.50 3,182
2 United Kingdom (UK) 1,074.61 2,316
3 France 871.71 1,871
4 Italy 559.21 1,305
5 Switzerland 495.94 1,227
6 Spain 375.30 1,040
7 Netherlands 282.16 763
8 Russia 252.82 791
9 Sweden 201.50 538
10 Belgium 149.57 409
11 Poland 127.74 481
12 Austria 125.14 403
13 Denmark 113.32 362
14 Finland 73.60 241
15 Czech Republic 51.02 300
16 Greece 45.13 243
17 Hungary 43.47 189
18 Portugal 41.77 229
19 Ireland 33.74 183
20 Slovenia 27.73 158
21 Norway 23.35 148
22 Ukraine 22.36 170
23 Romania 16.48 174
24 Croatia 11.33 99
25 Serbia 10.07 140
26 Cyprus 8.11 52
27 Slovakia 6.46 112
28 Bulgaria 5.53 60
29 Estonia 5.21 58
30 Lithuania 5.03 50
31 Luxembourg 4.01 17
32 Belarus 3.21 121
33 Iceland 2.75 11
34 Moldova 1.89 12
35 Latvia 1.82 5
36 Malta 1.67 2
37 Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.61 7
38 Vatican City State (Holy See) 0.13 3
39 San Marino 0.13 1
40 Macedonia 0.06 1
41 Montenegro 0.06 5

Footnote

Each year, the Nature Index publishes tables based on counts of high-quality research outputs in the previous calendar year. Users please note:

  1. The data behind the tables are based on a relatively small proportion of total research papers, they cover the natural sciences only and outputs are non-normalized (that is, they don’t reflect the size of the country or institution, or its overall research output).
  2. The Nature Index is one indicator of institutional research performance. The metrics of Count and Share used to order Nature Index listings are based on an institution’s or country’s publication output in 82 natural-science journals, selected on reputation by an independent panel of leading scientists in their fields.
  3. Nature Index recognizes that many other factors must be taken into account when considering research quality and institutional performance; Nature Index metrics alone should not be used to assess institutions or individuals.
  4. Nature Index data and methods are transparent and available under a creative commons licence at natureindex.com.

The Nature Index database undergoes regular updating, corrections, adjustment of institutional hierarchies, and removal of retracted papers and thus the live website can differ from the frozen annual tables.